VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)
VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 222-231
Ecological Base of Trzciniec Cultural Circle
¹ Department of the Archaeology of Chalcolithic – Bronze Age, Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
The Trzciniec cultural circle (TCC) is a group of related late Bronze Age archaeological cultures of Eastern Europe forest and forest-steppe zone. Covers an area of the basin of the Oder on the west to the basin of Dеsna on the east, from the Baltic States on the north, to the border of right-bank forest-steppe and steppe on the south. The area of TCC is divided on the Western (Baltic Sea basin) and Eastern (Black Sea basin) assemblages. To the west, assemblage concerns the Tszciniec culture, to the east concerns Komarov and Sosnitsa cultures. According to the system, connection between culture and surrounding landscape the forest and forest-steppe lines of development of TCC differs. The first is related to the lowland landscapes (Wielkopolsko-Kujawska lowland, Masovia, the Baltic States, Ukrainian, Belarussian and Briansk Polesye), the second – to highlands (Prykarpattya, Volhyn, Podolsk, Dnieper sublimities). The Sosnitsa culture matches the forest line of development, and the Komarov – the forest-steppe line of the eastern assemblage of TCC. On the verge of the 3rd and the 2nd millenniums B.C., the researchers of paleoclimate of South Russian steppes mark the maximum of subboreal aridization, that in the second quarter – middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. has changed with the subboreal climatic optimum: moistening, reduction of continentality of the climate. The complex paleogeographical studies (paleopedological, landscape, geophysical, archeozoological, paleobotanical, palynological, dendrochronological) of the Bronze – Early Iron Age sights on territory of North Ukraine and Belarus give an opportunity to confront the oscillation of climate in the eastern assemblage of TCC and their consequences with the climatic scale based on results of studies in other regions of Eastern Europe.
Key words: Ecological base, Tszciniec cultural circle, Bronze Age, paleoclimatology, Eastern Europe