VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020) ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research
VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020).
The transformation of the Neolithic population into tribes with the Mariupol type cemeteries after the cooling event 8.2 ky BP, 23-30
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Bern
The climate has always played an important role in human existence from ancient times to the present. Climate change has always had a significant impact on the development of traditions and technologies in prehistoric times. The global cooling event 8200 Cal BP was one of the greatest climatic events of the Holocene, which had a significant impact on the Neolithic population of Southern and Eastern Europe, Antalya, the Middle East, and North Africa.
During the 160–400-year cooling phase, several major environmental changes took place, such as an increase in the ocean and seawater; cooling the average temperature by ~ 3,3+/–1,1° C; drought in North Africa and the Middle East. The cooling affected the transgression of the Black Sea, whose rapid rise in water levels affected the population of the northern Black Sea coast.
The sharp drainage of the climate between 43° – 50° N latitudes has caused active migration processes among the Neolithic population in Anatolia, the Balkans, the Danube, and the Steppe Black Sea coast.
On the territory of Ukraine, the cold event occurred during the transition from the Mesolithic to the Early Neolithic. Late Mesolithic Hrebenykz, Kukrek and Donetsk cultures coexisted with the early Neolithic tribes of the Bug-Dniester, Sursk and Azov-Dnieper cultures. Under the influence of changes in natural areas in the northern Black Sea coast and the arrival of a new population of migrants from Anatolia to the Balkans and the Danube, there are active waves of local migration to the Bug-Dniester interfluve and settlement of the Middle to Lower Dnieper steppe.
Simultaneously with the cooling, these societies underwent profound changes that could be caused by the settlement of new groups in the region. One of the "characteristics" of these new cultural groups is the production of ceramic objects, such as pottery and the spread of a new funeral tradition — straightened on the back with outstretched arms and legs, which becomes the main for Mariupol-type cemeteries.
Keywords: cooling event 8.2 ky cal BP; migration; Neolithic population; East Europe; Cemeteries of the Mariupol type.
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