VITA ANTIQUA, №2. 1999

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01.Kukharchuk Yu. Mousterian location Chulatovo III in Desna Area and its cultural interpretation, 3-7

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The Mousterian site Chulatovo III was discovered by V. Gromov and V. Hohlovkina in 1938 and it was the first evidence of habitation of the North of Ukraine during the Middle Palaeolithic time. Materials discovered by M. Voyevodsky’s expedition were dated on the basis of geology.

In this artical there was an attempt to value the site from the point of view of stone industry. Coming from techno-typological analysis we consider the Chulatovo III as non Levallois and non laminar unfacetted industry were denticulated pieces and side-scrapers are prevailed and Upper Palaeolithic tools are represented considerably.

New data allow us to offer certain interpretations of cultural belonging of the site. In respect of searching for analogies of this industry the great interest is represented by the Mousterian locality of Betovo in Bryansk region. Comparative techno-typological analysis of these assemblages provides evidence of the high rate of similarity. More vide analogies can be seen in the assemblage of the lower layer of Stinka I in Dniester area, which is comparable with Betovo assemblage, too. It cannot be excluded that recently discovered locality Mukhovets in Sumy region as also related to this group of sites.

Hence, we have evidences of existence of Typical Tayac technocomplex in North Left Bank of river Dnieper abruptly differing from the data known in North Right Bank of river Dnieper and having parallels in Dniester area.

02.Pyasetski V. The Palaeolithic of the Eastern part of the Volhynian Uplands, 8-17

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The most ancient Mousterian location is Korshev. It is conditionally dated to pre-Bug time. The terminal Levallois-Mousterian of Zhornov is referred to the early stage of Stillfried В and genetically related to the more ancient sites of Middle Dniester area.

Early Aurignacuian is represented by the inventory of the site of Ivanichi, while the developed stage is recognized in the industry of Chervony Kamen. Gravettian of Zhornov, as well as above mentioned sites, is localized in deposits aged to Stillfried B. The latter industry possesses certain similarity to the assemblage of Lipa.

The industry of the upper cultural layer of Zhornov, which includes Szeletoide traits, is dated to final stage of Stillfried B.

Ivanichi, Chervony Kamen, Gravettian assemblage of Zhornov are related genetically to the West (Southern Poland, Slovakia, Chekh, Austria).

The Aurignacian of Chervony Kamen develops rather to the industry of Mirogoshcha I (where foliated points appeared) than to the Gravettian of Zhornov. Similar foliated points are known also at the site of Gryadki. Mirogoshcha I and Gryadki are dated to early Ostashkovo time.

The settlement of Rovno (Barmaki) in respect of culture is similar to the site of Mezin in Desna basin and was inhabited by people coming from the East. Lithic inventory of this settlement is essentially differing from the inventory of cultural layers of Lipa VI, refereed to Magdalenian time. The latest Palaeolithic localities are associated, probably, with Drias III. These are, most likely, Swiderian workshops on primary processing of Cretaceous flints. True Swiderian sites are not known yet on the territory of Volhynian Uplands.

The sites of Ivanichi, Chervony Kamen, Mirogoshcha I, and cultural sequence of Lipa IV belong to successive stages of Lipa Palaeolithic culture.

03.Stupak D. Technology of the flint chipping of the Sviderian culture of Ukrainian Polissia (by the cores analyzes), 18-24

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This article analysis knapping stone technologies that were present in Swiderian culture in Ukrainian Polissia. The first technology was based on the two opposite platform cores, second was based on the cone-shaped cores. For the first technology it was typical to prepare cores thoroughly. Two types of pre-cores are distinguished triple- edged and lens-shaped. The two opposite platforms technology allowed making half-finished product that required minimum processing to be turned onto the points typical for the Swiderian culture. However, much raw material should be used to make points, according to this technology. For knapping process were used soft hammerstone or billets.

The second technology was based on pressure technique which enabled to produce microblades for making inserts in narrow-slots points. This technology was more economical then the first one. The second technology as well as the first one was meant to produce half-finished product that required minimum processing to be transformed to certain tools. Thus, the second technology was based on the same principle as the first one, and that is why it was adopted by the Swiderians.

In this article we analyze the possibility borrowing of the pressure technique and microblades technologies from Kukrekian tradition of stone knapping.

04.Kornienko V. The classification of the Upper Palaeolithic anthropomorphic images, 25-30

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Le besoin de classification des images antropomorphes s impose depuis longtemps. Les classifications qui existent ne sont pas correctes, parce qu elles ne repondent pas aux exigences selon lesquelles on elabore les classifications scientifiques. L auteur propose un systeme ouvert de classification a neuf taxonomes principal: categorie, rang, section, class, groupe, type etc. Un tel systeme de classification satisfait aux conditions de 1 elaboration des classifications scientifiques. On peut utiliser ce systeme pour elaborer des classifications des images antropomorphes de la periode prehistorique.

05.Smyntyna E. Population migrations and the way of the historical-cultural adaptation: some problems of correlation (at the materials of Mesolithic settlements of Ukraine), 31-37

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Migrations could be regarded as population movements on distant territories. One can trace long lasting migrations (or colonizations) and comparatively rapid movements (or properly migrations). In frameworks of this last group of population movements we can distinguish 2 different variants: a) migrations which give rise to significant enlargement or total change of certain culture transmitters habitat; b) movements inside one foraging territory which are often called seasonal migrations.

Colonizations at Mesolithic times should be interpreted as phenomena not only historical but also geographic ones because they lead to landscape restructurization and give chance for principally new systems of cultural adaptations elaboration.

Main historical function of properly migrations is to ensure certain population group survival. In the case of habitat changing population movements mostly could be regarded as a specific way of traditional subsistence system preservation in analogous ecological conditions but in another territory. If population tends to migrate within its foraging territory it could be interpreted as one of the most important components of its economic adaptation system.

Analysis of properly migrations took place on the territory of modern Ukraine at the Mesolithic times doesn’t confirm thesis about immediate and total migrant culture transformation in new habitat. As a rule it happens later and, thus, is a result of a complicate multistage aborigine and recently arrived population interaction. In this case properly migrations could be regarded also as a specific form of ethnic contacts.

06.Mikhailova N. Myths about the deer of the Eurasian peoples, 38-44

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Mythes about the deer are spread on all the territories of deer populations. Mythes are the part of the pristine cult of the deer as a main hunting game.

Cult of the deer was formed in the Final Palaeolithic – Mesolithic time. It was worship of a deer – totemistic ancestor, mediator between peoples and animals worlds, guarantor of fertility and wellbeing. After the transition to productive economy the deer became a bearer of vital power, fertility and immortality. Primitive cult of the deer had huge ideological significance and was kept in the eclectic religious outlook, according to changes of formations till modern times.

07.Hassan Hasan. Ancient Mary city (problems of historical and archaeological study), 45-52

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The paper analyzes perspectives of the complex study of the unique historical and cultural center of the Near East civilization – the Mary city at the Middle Euphrates.

08.Mamleeva L. Formation of Great Silk Road in the system of transcivilization interaction of the peoples of Eurasia, 53-61

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The article studies the formation of the Great Silk Road, the main stages of its genesis and its role in the economic and cultural interaction of Eurasian nations. The Great Silk Road was one of the world’s oldest and most historically important trade routes and it has the great influence on the culture of China, Central Asia and the West.

Since the 3rd millennium B.C., trade contacts were established between Mesopotamia and Middle and Central Asia. The contacts developed through the “Lazurite” and “Nephrite” roads. From the 2nd millennium B.C. there were caravan routes from the western regions of the Achaemenids State to Bactria and India.

By the 1st millennium B.C., the Chinese Empire established direct political relations with the states of Central Asia. The Far East and Near East trade routes merged and united the Old World civilizations into a single macrosystem.

In the Middle Ages, the Great Silk Road turned into regularly functioning Trans – Eurasian trade route, controlled on a state level.

Different societies of this system functioned under different conditions, determined by social-cultural and economic features of their historical development.

09.Pioro V. Graves of the Katakombna culture with the production tools in the Luagansk province, 62-68

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The archaeological expedition of the Kyiv University investigated the graves with the production tools in the barrows in Lugansk province in 1985 and in 1987. All this graves were dated by middle and late stage of the Catacomb culture. It is possible to make the conclusion about the professional specialization of the buried in barrows on the basis of the studying of the archaeological material which was received during these excavations.

10.Lysenko S. Cemetery of Kozarovychy of Late Bronze Age, 69-75

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Cemetery is located to the North from village Kozarovychy, district of Vyshgorod of the Kiev area, on an edge slanting terraces of the right shore of river Dnieper, on the territory of well-known habitation site of Tripolie culture. In 1968-1971 V.A. Kruts dug out 10 graves of Late Bronze Age alongside with graves of other epochs.

The large part of skeletons in hardly curled graves is oriented by a head to East (graves ## 3, 32, 39, 45, 46) and West (grave # 42). Grave #47 mean degrees curled was oriented in western sector. In grave # 43 has the skeletons of the adult and child which lied slightly curled by heads in the opposite directions (on west and east accordingly). The skull of the teenager was fixed near the skull of a skeleton of the adult. In grave # 48 was investigated the clay facility on wood, in which there were burnt remnants of two skeletons. Grave # 49 represented a skeleton of the child, lied by the head in western sector; bones of finiteness were absent.

On cemetery are fixed the facts of ritual of cut of a head (graves 3, 43, 47).

All graves have no inventory, except of elimination grave #43, where at top of the skeleton of the adult, near to a skull of the teenager, stood ornamented cup of Trzciniec type. The child has on his hand the bronze bracelet in three turnovers, and near to bones of hands lied glass beads, painted by oxide of copper.

From a surface cemetery came whole a vessel of Trzciniec type. Also on cemetery two bone buckles are found, resembling direct analogies among materials of Mnogovalikovaya culture ceramics.

Because of available analogies the cemetery of Kozarovychy can be synchronized with the third chronological horizon of the cemetery Malopolovetskoye, Fastov district, late graves of KMK cemetery of Rosava near Mironovka, earliest barrows cemetery of Gordiyevka and Voytsehovka, grave #2 of the latter. The mixed character of a material complex of the cemetery is rather typical for forest-steppe Middle Dnieper region and is one of the indications of Kiev-Cherkassy Forest-steppe culture of Late Bronze epoch.

11.Zubar V., Krapivina V. About Roman Garrison in Olbia in the middle of the 3rd century, 76-83

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During excavations in the south-eastern part of the Upper city of Olbia in 1998 a small fragment of a marble slab with the relief of a Thracian horseman and two lines of Latin inscription was found. The relief belongs to the group of rather rare reliefs, where a Thracian horseman was depicted during hunting on a wild-boar, who was running under a croup of a horse. The appearance of such slabs in Olbia was connected with Thracian warriors in the Roman garrison here. The inscription can be restored in such way: –ET COH(ortis) I CILICUM DE/[CIANAE] — [EX] VOTO POSUIT. The translation is: “–and coh(ort) I Cilicianae De(cianae) — (by) promise dedicated”. In accordance with this interpretation the inscription can be dated by 249-250.

It is the latest epigraphic monument, which testifies to the residence of the warriors of the 1st Cilicianae cohort on the territory of Moesia Inferior and in the Greek centers of the Northern coast of the Black Sea. It is also the first epigraphic monument, which testified to the residence of the warriors of the 1st Cilicianae cohort in Olbia and that the cohort was rewarded with the honorable title Deciana. Together with already known epigraphic monuments this dedication permits to specify some aspects of the history of Olbia in the middle of the 3rd century, first of all concerning the composition of Roman garrison, the date of its withdrawal from the city, penetration and dissemination of Thracian cults here. Till the middle of the 3rd century Roman military administration assigned a certain part to Olbia in the politics of containing of barbarians on the Danubian frontiers of the Empire.

12.Petrauskas A., Petrauskas O., Shyshkin R. The new settlement of the Late Zarubinetska culture near Krukivschina in the Kyiv region, 84-91

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In the paper the results of excavations of the settlement near village Krukivschina in the Kyiv region are published. In 1994 at the settlement were discovered a building and 10 storage pits of the Late Zarubinetska culture dated by the middle of the 1st – 2nd centuries AD.

13.Levada M., Osadchiy R. The New Monuments of Chernyahov Culture to the North of Vinnitsa Province (about a question of the populating of Ros’ and South Bug interriver in Late Roman Time), 92-97

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The article deals with the results of examination of new monuments of late Roman Age on the north of Vinnitsa province (monuments of Chernyakhov culture). As a result of the work conducted in 1992-1994 the ‘blind” spot between the Ros and Southern Bug rivers was filled with facts. Significant group of monuments contains specific handmade ceramics similar to the Wielbark culture’s ceramics found in Southern Baltic region. Some found artefacts allow the authors to attribute the studied group of monuments broadly to the entire period of existence of the Chernyakhov culture (phases Clb-Dl of the general European chronology).

14.Sinitsa E. Early mediavel ingumations in penkovka culture area, 98-110

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The article is devoted to one of the most interesting problem of early Slavs archaeology: the problem of mono- or bi-ritualism of Penkovka culture burial practice. Proposing article contains historiographical survey of this problem, catalog of inhumation burials in Penkovka culture area and of the studies in microchronology of those burials. In the article is proposed a new approach to above-mention problem. According in our opinion it is not correctly to formulate this problem like a hard opposition of cremation and inhumation rituals carriers or like ultimate culture unity of those population. We need to examine more correctly the degree of inclusion of inhumations carriers into culture context of Penkovka antiquities in each concrete case.

15.Komar A. Pre-Saltiv and Early Saltiv horizons of Western Europe (problems of chronology), 111-136

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The paper presents chronological system for burials and cemeteries of the Pereschepina culture and early period of the Saltiv culture, analyses features of appearance, forming and development of these cultures. The Pereschepina culture includes three chronological horizons. Horizon of Pereschepina (670-705) was a time of Khazarian composite belts of heraldic style and Byzantine belts of Bocha-Kunbabony type. During horizon of Voznesenka (705-725) in Khazarian burials had appeared new details of belts (Byzantine buckles, plaques of Khazarian types, plaques of Avar horizon Igar-Ozara) and harness (plaques, stapes), new types of earrings eta the final horizon of Pereschepina culture is Galiat-Helenovka (725-740).

It s a time of appearance of Late Avarian belts, Khazarian analogies to those had designed only in next horizon. First burials of Saltiv culture have appeared after war between Khazars and Arabs in 737. Early Saltiv period (horizon Stolbische-Starokorsunskaja) includes two phases: phase 1 (740-770) and phase 2 (770-790). Belts of this horizon were of Crimean-Byzantine style. But about 760 Khazaria changed its political orientation and stopped political and trade relation with Bizantium. Thus soon avoided changes in material culture and appearance of horizon I/H (780-800), during which were designed belts of classic Saltiv style and horizon Stolbische-Starokorsunskaja was changed by horizon II of Saltiv culture.

16.Aksjonov V. The Staryj Saltiv catacomb cemetery, 137-149

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The paper presents results of excavations of the catacomb cemetery near Staryj Saltiv (Vovchansk district, Kharkiv region, Ukraine). At the cemetery were found and excavated 21 catacomb burials and a burial of horse of the Saltiv culture dated by second half of the 8th first half of the 9th centuries A.D. The most of interest are burials of early chronological group dated until the end of the 8th century.

17.Komar A., Pioro V. Barrows of the Khazarian time in the Lugansk region, 150-159

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The paper publishes three barrows of the Khazarian times from the Lugansk region (Ukraine). Barrow 2 from Obozne had two burials: the first is the burial of Khazarian warrior dated by Early Saltiv period (740-770), the second is a burial of the Polovtsy times (11th-13th centuries A.D.). The burial of barrow 2 from Bobrikovo dated by Middle Saltiv period (9th century A.D.), and barrow 2 from Karpovo-Krepinka was a specific type of cenotaph, a barrow without burial, dated by Late Saltiv period (end of the 9th – first half of the 10th centuries A.D.).

18.Tahtaj A. Burial complex of the Khazarian times from Chistjakovo (Stalino region), 160-169

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The paper of A.K. Tahtaj was written in 1958 and has never been published before. It analyzes burial finds of Saltiv culture from Chistjakovo (now it is Torez, Donetsk region) that were accidentally found in 1954. Burial was completely destroyed but can be reconstructed as a grave of men with a symbolic burial of horse and ritual meal presented by bones of sheep. Grave goods are the following: amulets, composite belt, harness, bludgeon, knife, amphorae, pottery of Saltiv culture and gold Byzantine solids of Constantine V (751-757).

Here is presented edited version of the paper with commentaries of A.V. Komar.

19.Krasilnikov K. Kitchen ceramics and some wares of special designation made of clay of Saltiv-Majaki culture in the Middle Donets region, 170-177

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As a result of exploration of settlements and burial grounds in the Middle Donets region about 200 wares in the shape of the whole forms made of clay were discovered. A considerable part of them is the ceramics of kitchen designation. The examination of earthenware showed it could be divided into types according to technology, designation, dimensions and other parameters. And equally with the discovered pottery stamps on the pots it gives evidence to a well-developed local pottery of the settled pra-bulgarians.

The wares of special designation add more to the existing information about hand-made productions, holding, way of life of the settling of the around Donets of the VIII-IX centuries.

20.Shilin Y. New in numismatics of the Kharahanides, 178-193

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This article analyses 510 of 161 stamps of Qarakhanid dirhems, mainly 400-401 AD from cities Shasha, Tarаzа and Isbijaba. 40 of them are not published before coins. The table describes all new and known before dirhems of the researched period in consecutive order. The analyses of the data cards and the stamps variety have allowed to create the version of historical events structurally more complete and distinct from existing.

21.Androschuk F. Sweeden Birka and its contacts with the East, 194-205

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The article has two basic purposes: the review of the results of the researches which was dedicated Birka – the town of the Vikings and the problem of the east contacts of this trade-centre. Among the most debatable questions are the questions of the origin and decline of the Birka. In the article the attention is paid to the new excavations of the fortification of the Birka which have been conducted by L. Holmquist Olausson. These investigations are significant for re-dating of the term of the rise of this trade-center on the island Bjurku, and put the question on the term of the Birka’s destruction. Traditionally it is considered that the decline of the Birka has come about 970 A.D. However the L. Holmquist Olausson’s excavations have shown that at the end of 10th century the Birka’s rampart have been built. Now it is not clear, the old population has built this rampart, or new which has left subsequently cemetery Kerrbacka.

It is necessary to note that existence of the fortification in the Birka is the essential feature, which distinguishes it from the similar trade-centers of the East Europe: Ladoga, Gorodishche, Gneozdovo, Timerjovo, Shestovitsa. The majority of settlements were not fortified. The questions of the contacts of the Birka with the East Europe were examined by T. Arne and H. Arbman and I. Jansson. Mainly these contacts involved eastern items from the barrows of the Birka’s cemetery. This article considers the east artifacts found during the excavation the Black Earth by H. Stolpe. They concern the details of ornaments and arms. The study of the female style is important for clarifying the problem of the migration of Birka inhabitants to the East Europe. A. Stalsberg and I. Boguslavsky believe that two oval brooches and third additional are attributes of the typical Scandinavian female clothes. However, according to the calculations of the author of the article there are 22 variants of the various combinations of ornaments in the female graves of the Birka.

The largest amount of the female graves has only the beads. Second by amount is the group of the graves with two or one brooches. And only third group forms the female graves with two oval brooches and third additional brooch. The attention is paid to fact that the east items were known in Birka during 9-10 century A.D. It allows to assert that the population of the Birka has absorbed the east influences which were reflected in formation of some elements, both man and female style.

22.Gotun I.A. Functional features of the nonfortified settlements of the Middle Dnieper region in 10th – 13th centuries A.D., 206-212

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The analysis of features of Old Rus village settlements at the Middle Dnieper region shows that they were not uniform. Archaeologically have been discovered large agriculture settlements, cattleman settlements and settlements whose inhabitants practiced different fields and crafts permanently or seasonally. New materials prove that this structure was more developed. The analysis of buildings discovered at those settlements gives evidences about settlements of hunters and fishers, settlements on which were practiced both agriculture and craft, and about versatile centers. Especially this concerned to Polissia zone where environment forced people to seek for different sources of existing. Between specific South Rus non-fortified settlements we know also feudal country centers, religious sites etc. Of course, some typical kind of settlements existed, but never the less, every settlement kept their own individual features.

23.Bulgakova V. Old Russian seal of the second half XIIth - the first half XIIIth within the bounds of the Kiev, 213-214

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The article concerns one Old Russian seal discovered in 1971 within the bounds of the Kiev. As a result of recent research of the artefact by the author, the previous described attribution of the printing and the chronological framework of its circulation was changed.

24.Tomilovich L. The Middle Dnieper link of the East-West trade root in 13th- 16th centuries A.D., 215-222

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In the Late Middle Ages trade continued to play an important part of the economic life of the right bank of the Dnieper. The specific feature of trade development of this region has diminutive trading character.

The article analyses development stages of relations of Southern Kiev lands and cities of Northern Black Sea region during the period from the mid of ХIII century up to the mid of XVI century. There was made the conclusion that trade went through difficult development, they were the rises and the falls, the character was changing from Asia to Europe, the leader changed – first Italians, then – Turks. Both of them were interested in the development of wide trade relations of the region. The Kiev’s lands mostly play the part of intermediary and importer of fur. The principally mediatory character of the trade and absence of projectionist policy from the government became a reason for the weakness of Southern Russian merchants, yet for the times of Old Russian State, the end of XII century – the beginning of ХIII century.

The same situation survived at the times of Late Middle Ages. There were the cut-off of turnpike and sorrowfully known Black Way lay near the South of Kiev. Therefore, this territory was situated on the crossroads of the main trade ways and ways of nomads’ bandit campaigns. This factor played the great role in its historical destiny and greatly influenced on political, economic and ethnic development.

25.Zelenko S. Underwater archaeological research at Novy Svet near Sudak in 1997 – 1999, 223-224

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The article concern on underwater archeological research at Novy Svet near Sudak (medieval Soldaya).

There was revealed a 13-century shipwreck. According to preliminary evaluations, cargo of the ship contained of pithos, amphorae, kitchen- and tableware, glass ware and glaze ceramics.

26.Tur V. Archaeological surveys of the medieval Christian church at the Sjujurju-Kaja mountain (Karadag), 235-239

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In the paper are published the results of archaeological excavations at the Sjujurju-Kaja mountain in 1998 during which were discovered bases of the medieval Christian church. Ceramics and a hoard of Crimean coins minted in 957 H. (1551 A.D.) proves that the church existed in 15th-16th centuries A.D.

27.Karsim I. Problems of the church archaeology by the Archaeological Congresses in the second half of XIX - on the beginning of XX centuries, 240-245

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The author of the article analyses the problems of the church archaeology by the Archaeological Congresses in the second half of XIX – on the beginning of XX centuries. The main reason which gathered these Congresses was an anxiety about the conditions of the historical monuments, especially of church monuments preservation. To ensure the success of theirs preservation these monuments had to be investigated, popularized, and had to be introduced the studding of archaeology in the higher educational institutions, specifically in the Theological academies, had to be created the church-archaeological museums in the dioceses and Theological schools. In the process of conducting of this Congresses a little by little the theory of the church archaeology was developed, was defined its object, was worked up its methodology, was accumulated its material.

Archaeological Congresses had the regional character, so their participants paid attention first of all to the monuments of the region where the Congresses took place. It is interesting that six of fifteen Congresses took place on the territory of Ukraine. The scientific interests of church archaeologists concerned such regions as the territory of Russian empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and the territory of former Byzantium. Little by little the themes of the Congresses were broadened, touched upon questions became more complicated, the more scientists took part in the Congresses. Among the problems of the church archaeology which were developed on that Congresses were the theory of the science; church architecture, its various aspects, its regional special features, its periodization; the history of church utensils and icon-painting; church applied art; the problems of mutual influence of Russian, Ukrainian, Byzantine, West European and Eastern church art.

28.Taran O. Scientific-theoretical activity of the F. Vovk Cabinet of Anthropology and Ethnology at the Panukrainian Akademy of Sciences, 247-250

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L’article est consacre а l etude de l activite scientifique et theorique d’une des subdivisions de recherche de VUAN le Cabinet de l’anthropologie et de l’ethnologie. Le cabinet portait le nom du premier anthropologue Ukrainien Fedor Kondratievitch Vovk. Le Cabinet organise par les eleves de F. Vovk, realisait des etudes anthropometriques de la population de l’Ukraine durant les annees vingt et a cormcide avec la periode de l’ukrainisation del histoire sovietique, qu a influence favorablement l’activite du Cabinet, mаlgre les difficultes financieres.

Les employes du Cabinet avec A. Nosov en tete continuaient le travail commence par F. Vovk, sur l’etude du type anthropologique des ukrainiens. Comme le resultat il yaeu des travaux sur l’anthropologie des ukrainiens de Kouban, de Podіlla, ainsi que le travail selon l’etude des peuples habitants en Ukraine (des tatars de Сrimee). La politique interieure de l’etat dirige sur deracinement de tous les traits nationaux et originaux, na pas donne de possibilite de finir le travail commence par les anthropologues ukrainiens et produire le traitement d’echelle statistique du materiel rеsu.

29.Omeltchenko Y., Danilova L. The second subsystem of the museology (history, theory, practice), 251-257

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The article considers the historical process of formation of the second subsystem of the museum studies and its theory.