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In this artical there was an attempt to value the site from the point of view of stone industry. Coming from techno-typological analysis we consider the Chulatovo III as non Levallois and non laminar unfacetted industry were denticulated pieces and side-scrapers are prevailed and Upper Palaeolithic tools are represented considerably.
New data allow us to offer certain interpretations of cultural belonging of the site. In respect of searching for analogies of this industry the great interest is represented by the Mousterian locality of Betovo in Bryansk region. Comparative techno-typological analysis of these assemblages provides evidence of the high rate of similarity. More vide analogies can be seen in the assemblage of the lower layer of Stinka I in Dniester area, which is comparable with Betovo assemblage, too. It cannot be excluded that recently discovered locality Mukhovets in Sumy region as also related to this group of sites.
Hence, we have evidences of existence of Typical Tayac technocomplex in North Left Bank of river Dnieper abruptly differing from the data known in North Right Bank of river Dnieper and having parallels in Dniester area.
Early Aurignacuian is represented by the inventory of the site of Ivanichi, while the developed stage is recognized in the industry of Chervony Kamen. Gravettian of Zhornov, as well as above mentioned sites, is localized in deposits aged to Stillfried B. The latter industry possesses certain similarity to the assemblage of Lipa.
The industry of the upper cultural layer of Zhornov, which includes Szeletoide traits, is dated to final stage of Stillfried B.
Ivanichi, Chervony Kamen, Gravettian assemblage of Zhornov are related genetically to the West (Southern Poland, Slovakia, Chekh, Austria).
The Aurignacian of Chervony Kamen develops rather to the industry of Mirogoshcha I (where foliated points appeared) than to the Gravettian of Zhornov. Similar foliated points are known also at the site of Gryadki. Mirogoshcha I and Gryadki are dated to early Ostashkovo time.
The settlement of Rovno (Barmaki) in respect of culture is similar to the site of Mezin in Desna basin and was inhabited by people coming from the East. Lithic inventory of this settlement is essentially differing from the inventory of cultural layers of Lipa VI, refereed to Magdalenian time. The latest Palaeolithic localities are associated, probably, with Drias III. These are, most likely, Swiderian workshops on primary processing of Cretaceous flints. True Swiderian sites are not known yet on the territory of Volhynian Uplands.
The sites of Ivanichi, Chervony Kamen, Mirogoshcha I, and cultural sequence of Lipa IV belong to successive stages of Lipa Palaeolithic culture.
The second technology was based on pressure technique which enabled to produce microblades for making inserts in narrow-slots points. This technology was more economical then the first one. The second technology as well as the first one was meant to produce half-finished product that required minimum processing to be transformed to certain tools. Thus, the second technology was based on the same principle as the first one, and that is why it was adopted by the Swiderians.
In this article we analyze the possibility borrowing of the pressure technique and microblades technologies from Kukrekian tradition of stone knapping.
Colonizations at Mesolithic times should be interpreted as phenomena not only historical but also geographic ones because they lead to landscape restructurization and give chance for principally new systems of cultural adaptations elaboration.
Main historical function of properly migrations is to ensure certain population group survival. In the case of habitat changing population movements mostly could be regarded as a specific way of traditional subsistence system preservation in analogous ecological conditions but in another territory. If population tends to migrate within its foraging territory it could be interpreted as one of the most important components of its economic adaptation system.
Analysis of properly migrations took place on the territory of modern Ukraine at the Mesolithic times doesn’t confirm thesis about immediate and total migrant culture transformation in new habitat. As a rule it happens later and, thus, is a result of a complicate multistage aborigine and recently arrived population interaction. In this case properly migrations could be regarded also as a specific form of ethnic contacts.
Cult of the deer was formed in the Final Palaeolithic – Mesolithic time. It was worship of a deer – totemistic ancestor, mediator between peoples and animals worlds, guarantor of fertility and wellbeing. After the transition to productive economy the deer became a bearer of vital power, fertility and immortality. Primitive cult of the deer had huge ideological significance and was kept in the eclectic religious outlook, according to changes of formations till modern times.
Since the 3rd millennium B.C., trade contacts were established between Mesopotamia and Middle and Central Asia. The contacts developed through the “Lazurite” and “Nephrite” roads. From the 2nd millennium B.C. there were caravan routes from the western regions of the Achaemenids State to Bactria and India.
By the 1st millennium B.C., the Chinese Empire established direct political relations with the states of Central Asia. The Far East and Near East trade routes merged and united the Old World civilizations into a single macrosystem.
In the Middle Ages, the Great Silk Road turned into regularly functioning Trans – Eurasian trade route, controlled on a state level.
Different societies of this system functioned under different conditions, determined by social-cultural and economic features of their historical development.
The large part of skeletons in hardly curled graves is oriented by a head to East (graves ## 3, 32, 39, 45, 46) and West (grave # 42). Grave #47 mean degrees curled was oriented in western sector. In grave # 43 has the skeletons of the adult and child which lied slightly curled by heads in the opposite directions (on west and east accordingly). The skull of the teenager was fixed near the skull of a skeleton of the adult. In grave # 48 was investigated the clay facility on wood, in which there were burnt remnants of two skeletons. Grave # 49 represented a skeleton of the child, lied by the head in western sector; bones of finiteness were absent.
On cemetery are fixed the facts of ritual of cut of a head (graves 3, 43, 47).
All graves have no inventory, except of elimination grave #43, where at top of the skeleton of the adult, near to a skull of the teenager, stood ornamented cup of Trzciniec type. The child has on his hand the bronze bracelet in three turnovers, and near to bones of hands lied glass beads, painted by oxide of copper.
From a surface cemetery came whole a vessel of Trzciniec type. Also on cemetery two bone buckles are found, resembling direct analogies among materials of Mnogovalikovaya culture ceramics.
Because of available analogies the cemetery of Kozarovychy can be synchronized with the third chronological horizon of the cemetery Malopolovetskoye, Fastov district, late graves of KMK cemetery of Rosava near Mironovka, earliest barrows cemetery of Gordiyevka and Voytsehovka, grave #2 of the latter. The mixed character of a material complex of the cemetery is rather typical for forest-steppe Middle Dnieper region and is one of the indications of Kiev-Cherkassy Forest-steppe culture of Late Bronze epoch.
It is the latest epigraphic monument, which testifies to the residence of the warriors of the 1st Cilicianae cohort on the territory of Moesia Inferior and in the Greek centers of the Northern coast of the Black Sea. It is also the first epigraphic monument, which testified to the residence of the warriors of the 1st Cilicianae cohort in Olbia and that the cohort was rewarded with the honorable title Deciana. Together with already known epigraphic monuments this dedication permits to specify some aspects of the history of Olbia in the middle of the 3rd century, first of all concerning the composition of Roman garrison, the date of its withdrawal from the city, penetration and dissemination of Thracian cults here. Till the middle of the 3rd century Roman military administration assigned a certain part to Olbia in the politics of containing of barbarians on the Danubian frontiers of the Empire.
It s a time of appearance of Late Avarian belts, Khazarian analogies to those had designed only in next horizon. First burials of Saltiv culture have appeared after war between Khazars and Arabs in 737. Early Saltiv period (horizon Stolbische-Starokorsunskaja) includes two phases: phase 1 (740-770) and phase 2 (770-790). Belts of this horizon were of Crimean-Byzantine style. But about 760 Khazaria changed its political orientation and stopped political and trade relation with Bizantium. Thus soon avoided changes in material culture and appearance of horizon I/H (780-800), during which were designed belts of classic Saltiv style and horizon Stolbische-Starokorsunskaja was changed by horizon II of Saltiv culture.
Here is presented edited version of the paper with commentaries of A.V. Komar.
The wares of special designation add more to the existing information about hand-made productions, holding, way of life of the settling of the around Donets of the VIII-IX centuries.
It is necessary to note that existence of the fortification in the Birka is the essential feature, which distinguishes it from the similar trade-centers of the East Europe: Ladoga, Gorodishche, Gneozdovo, Timerjovo, Shestovitsa. The majority of settlements were not fortified. The questions of the contacts of the Birka with the East Europe were examined by T. Arne and H. Arbman and I. Jansson. Mainly these contacts involved eastern items from the barrows of the Birka’s cemetery. This article considers the east artifacts found during the excavation the Black Earth by H. Stolpe. They concern the details of ornaments and arms. The study of the female style is important for clarifying the problem of the migration of Birka inhabitants to the East Europe. A. Stalsberg and I. Boguslavsky believe that two oval brooches and third additional are attributes of the typical Scandinavian female clothes. However, according to the calculations of the author of the article there are 22 variants of the various combinations of ornaments in the female graves of the Birka.
The largest amount of the female graves has only the beads. Second by amount is the group of the graves with two or one brooches. And only third group forms the female graves with two oval brooches and third additional brooch. The attention is paid to fact that the east items were known in Birka during 9-10 century A.D. It allows to assert that the population of the Birka has absorbed the east influences which were reflected in formation of some elements, both man and female style.
The article analyses development stages of relations of Southern Kiev lands and cities of Northern Black Sea region during the period from the mid of ХIII century up to the mid of XVI century. There was made the conclusion that trade went through difficult development, they were the rises and the falls, the character was changing from Asia to Europe, the leader changed – first Italians, then – Turks. Both of them were interested in the development of wide trade relations of the region. The Kiev’s lands mostly play the part of intermediary and importer of fur. The principally mediatory character of the trade and absence of projectionist policy from the government became a reason for the weakness of Southern Russian merchants, yet for the times of Old Russian State, the end of XII century – the beginning of ХIII century.
The same situation survived at the times of Late Middle Ages. There were the cut-off of turnpike and sorrowfully known Black Way lay near the South of Kiev. Therefore, this territory was situated on the crossroads of the main trade ways and ways of nomads’ bandit campaigns. This factor played the great role in its historical destiny and greatly influenced on political, economic and ethnic development.
There was revealed a 13-century shipwreck. According to preliminary evaluations, cargo of the ship contained of pithos, amphorae, kitchen- and tableware, glass ware and glaze ceramics.
Archaeological Congresses had the regional character, so their participants paid attention first of all to the monuments of the region where the Congresses took place. It is interesting that six of fifteen Congresses took place on the territory of Ukraine. The scientific interests of church archaeologists concerned such regions as the territory of Russian empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and the territory of former Byzantium. Little by little the themes of the Congresses were broadened, touched upon questions became more complicated, the more scientists took part in the Congresses. Among the problems of the church archaeology which were developed on that Congresses were the theory of the science; church architecture, its various aspects, its regional special features, its periodization; the history of church utensils and icon-painting; church applied art; the problems of mutual influence of Russian, Ukrainian, Byzantine, West European and Eastern church art.
Les employes du Cabinet avec A. Nosov en tete continuaient le travail commence par F. Vovk, sur l’etude du type anthropologique des ukrainiens. Comme le resultat il yaeu des travaux sur l’anthropologie des ukrainiens de Kouban, de Podіlla, ainsi que le travail selon l’etude des peuples habitants en Ukraine (des tatars de Сrimee). La politique interieure de l’etat dirige sur deracinement de tous les traits nationaux et originaux, na pas donne de possibilite de finir le travail commence par les anthropologues ukrainiens et produire le traitement d’echelle statistique du materiel rеsu.