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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.

Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020)

International educational project «Nature and Society in Prehistoric Europe», 91-105

Pavlo Shydlovskyi1, Marta Arzarello2, Sara Garcês3, Albert Hafner4, Marie-Hélène Moncel5, Stéphane Péan6, Marta Połtowicz-Bobak7, Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka8, Vitalii Usik9

1Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine) ORCID0000-0001-6771-812X
2University of Ferrara (Italy) ORCID: 0000–0003–3379–1112
3Polytechnic Institute of Tomar; Geosciences Centre University of Coimbra; Instituto Terra e Memória (Portugal) ORCID: 0000–0003–0822–5012
4Director of Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland) ORCID: 0000–0003–2159–8569
5National Museum of Natural History, (France) ORCID: 0000–0001–6203–786X
6National Museum of Natural History, (France)
7University of Rzeszów (Poland) ORCID: 0000–0003–1973–4971
8Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland) ORCID0000–0001–5913–1177
9Archaeological Museum, Institute of archaeology of NAS Ukraine ORCID: 0000-0002-2671-3485

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-91-105
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-91-105

Abstract:

The stressful situation caused by the pandemic has become a powerful factor for the introduction of new methods and forms of education. The field of archaeological education was no exception. Creating online courses in archaeology and prehistory has its own specifics, which is manifested in the complexity of transmitting information about artefacts and field objects remotely. The project is to create a training course «Nature and society in Prehistoric Europe» through the creation of multimedia products such as video lectures, visual materials and online publications, which will widely present data and research results from Europe and Ukraine in particular. The main purpose of the course is to combine science and education through the interaction of student audiences with the professional environment by transmitting scientifically significant and relevant information about the interaction of society and nature from researchers to students and young scientists. In connection with the transfer of the learning process and the work of higher education institutions online, the project plans to develop multimedia materials that would provide professional delivery of knowledge and interaction between teacher and student.

Priority objectives of the project:

- Getting to know the professional cultures of the EU. In the course of the project implementation, the presentations and lectures of key speakers — leading scientists and teachers of European higher education institutions will be listened to and considered. Constant communication, joint seminars and consultations will allow better understanding and feeling the peculiarities of teaching practices in different European countries, to see the ethics of communication between teacher and student, to learn from the best methods of developing lectures and presentations.

— Practices and principles of teaching in the EU. In the process of creating a multimedia course, students and young prehistorians will have direct communication with outstanding scientists and teachers in this field, which will ensure the direct transfer of scientific experience and information to students.

— Foreign language learning and multilingual education. When creating a course at the seminars there will be communication in English. The participation of students and young scientists will help them to navigate in modern terminology and increase their ability to absorb information presented in a non-native language.

— Online education. The result of the project will be an online product in the form of a multimedia course, a gallery of photos and digital illustrations and an online publication of a collection of scientific articles.

This course establish close cooperation with representatives of educational institutions in France, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland and Ukraine, which will in the future create a consortium of teachers specializing in the interaction of nature and society in different historical epochs.

Key words: archaeological education, prehistory, paleoecology, institute of higher education, multimedia course

Language: English/Ukrainian

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Cite as:

Shydlovskyi, P., Arzarello, M., Garcês, S., Hafner, A., Moncel, M-H., Péan, S., Połtowicz-Bobak, M., Sobkowiak-Tabaka, I., Usik, V. 2020. International educational project “Nature and Society in Prehistoric Europe”. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 91-105.

References (lectures):

Arzarello, Marta (2021). The first European peopling: migration routes and behavior, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/the-first-european-peopling-migration-routes-and-behaviour/

Garcês, Sara (2021). Crossing bridges, from Mesolithic to new horizons: identifying changes in the Tagus rock art tradition, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/crossing-bridges-from-mesolithic-to-new-horizons-identifying-changes-in-the-tagus-rock-art-tradition/

Hafner, Albert (2021). Tracing human mobility and migration in the Holocene, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/02/02/title-tracing-human-mobility-and-migration-in-the-holocene/

Moncel, Marie-Hélène (2021). Strategies of Neanderthal occupations from the MIS 5 to 3 at the Abri du Maras (South-East France), http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/strategies-of-neanderthal-occupations-from-the-mis-5-to-3-at-the-abri-du-maras-south-west-france/

Péan, Stéphane (2021). Zooarchaeological methods: reconstitute relationships between Palaeolithic humans and other mammals, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/zooarchaeological-methods-reconstitute-relationships-between-palaeolithic-humans-and-other-mammals/

Połtowicz-Bobak, Marta (2021). On the contact of two worlds: eastern borders of the Magdalenian complex, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/on-the-contact-of-two-worlds-eastern-borders-of-the-magdalenian-complex/

Shydlovskyi, Pavlo (2021). Mammoth hunters of Dnieper basin. Human-environmental interaction in the end of the last glaciation, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/mammoth-hunters-of-dnieper-basin-human-environmental-interaction-in-the-end-of-the-last-glaciation/

Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona (2021). Living on the edge. Late Palaeolithic communities on the North European Plain, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/01/29/living-on-the-edge-late-palaeolithic-communities-on-the-north-european-plain/

Usik, Vitalii (2021). Multilayer Palaeolithic Korolevo site (Transcarpathia, Ukraine): Through Time, Cultural Traditions and Technologies, http://vovkcenter.org.ua/en/2021/04/30/multilayer-palaeolithic-korolevo-site-transcarpathia-ukraine-through-time-cultural-traditions-and-technologies/

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020)
Kyiv Dnieper Region sites with Kukrek inventory in archeological and climate contexts, 41-71

Andrii Sorokun1
Pavlo Shydlovskyi2

1 Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: 000-0002-8506-4817
2 Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
ORCID: 0000-0001-6771-812X

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-41-71
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-41-71

Abstract:
Research in the field of paleoecology in recent years has confidently proven the vulnerability and sensitivity of human networks to climate and landscape changes. It is impossible to understand the processes of cultural dynamics, migration, ways of technology dissemination without the involvement of data from paleoclimatology and paleogeography. This is especially true in addressing the issues of gradualness - discontinuity in the development of cultural phenomena of the late Pleistocene - early Holocene.

The article presents an attempt to analyse the archaeological and climate backgrounds of the spread of Kukrek technocomplex together with the traditions of ceramic production in the Kyiv Dnieper Region. One of the main results of the study is the conclusion about the complexity of migration processes in the Early Holocene, which is manifested in significant variability of sites, and in various combinations of Janislawice, Kukrek, Bug-Dniester and Dnipro-Donetsk components in lithic and ceramic assemblages. Settlement dynamics was marked by significant fluctuations and uneven population of the Kyiv Dnieper Region. At the base of this dynamic was global climate change, the main ones being the coolings of the Young Dryas and the 6,200 BC event.

Key words: Early Holocene, Mesolithic, Neolithization, past global change, Kukrek, Janislawice, Middle Dnieper Region

Language: English

PDF PDF

Cite as:

Sorokun, A., Shydlovskyi, P. 2020. Kyiv Dnieper Region sites with Kukrek inventory in archeological and climate contexts. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 41-71.

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020).
The impact of Holocene climate setbacks on Neolithic societies in Eastern Europe: ways of scientific cooperation and exchange

Marta Andriiovych1
Pavlo Shydlovskyi2
Albert Hafner1

1University of Bern, Institute for Archaeological Sciences
2Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-7-14
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-7-14

Abstract:
The challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic remind the scientific community that human-environment relations are of great social relevance. Societal crises, currently triggered by the emergence of unknown viruses or in the future by climate change, are essentially the result of widening human activities since the last 12,000 years. Therefore, research that examines the transformative phases in the evolution of human culture associated with past global climate changes has become particularly important in recent years.
The study of the interaction of nature and society in the Holocene was one of the tasks of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Institutional Partnership project “Network in Eastern European Neolithic and Wetland Archaeology for the improvement of field techniques and dating methods (NEENAWA)”. With the organisation of the session “The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes” at the 26th Annual Virtual Conference of the European Association of Archaeologists (EAA, 24-30 August 2020), issues related to the economy and ecology of Neolithic communities linked to water bodies were discussed. The publication of session materials will be important for the study of the local manifestations of the different responses of prehistoric societies to climate setbacks in the early Holocene. In order to unite science and training through the interaction of the student audience with the professional environment, the Centre for Palaeoethnological Research decided to develop a multimedia training course “Nature and Society in Prehistoric Europe” in 2021.
Key words: past climate changes, Holocene, prehistoric archaeology, scientific cooperation, educational project.

Language: English/Ukrainian

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Cite as:

Andriiovych, M., Shydlovskyi, P., Hafner, A. 2020. The impact of Holocene climate setbacks on Neolithic societies in Eastern Europe: ways of scientific cooperation and exchange. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 7-14.

References:

Andriiovych, M., Demchenko, O., Hinz, M. 2020. The climate impact on European Neolithic societies during the 8.2-ky BP events near river basins and lakes shores. In: #Networking. 26th EAA Virtual Annual Meeting – Abstract Book. Prague: EAA, p. 433-435.

Hafner, A., Dolbunova, E., Mazurkevich, A., Morozova, Y., Naumov, G., Nielsen, E., Shydlovskyi, P., Todoroska, V. 2020a. Network in Eastern European Neolithic and Wetland Archaeology. Scientific Cooperation between Eastern Europe and Switzerland (Bern Working Papers on Prehistoric Archaeology 3). Bern: Bern Open Publishing; Institute of Archaeological Sciences, https://doi.org/10.7892/boris.146724 .

Hafner, A., Dolbunova, E., Mazurkevich, A., Pranckenaite, E., Hinz, M. (eds.). 2020b. Settling Waterscapes in Europe : The archaeology of Neolithic and Bronze Age pile-dwellings. Open Series in Prehistoric Archaeology 1. Bern and Heidelberg: Propylaeum. 290 p., https://doi.org/10.11588/propylaeum.714 .

Morozova, Y., Shydlovskyi, P. (eds.). 2017. Wetland Archaeology and Prehistoric Networks in Europe / NEENAWA International Scientific Conference, September 15th-18th, 2017, Kyiv – Kaniv. Kyiv: VITA ANTIQUA library, http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1188274 .

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Shydlovskyi, P. (ed.). 2017. HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe. VITA ANTIQUA 9. Kyiv: Center for Paleoethnological Research, https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9 .

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020).
The transformation of the Neolithic population into tribes with the Mariupol type cemeteries after the cooling event 8.2 ky BP, 23-30

Marta Andriiovych
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Bern
ORCID: 0000–0001–8950–4130

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-23-30
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-23-30

Abstract:
The climate has always played an important role in human existence from ancient times to the present. Climate change has always had a significant impact on the development of traditions and technologies in prehistoric times. The global cooling event 8200 Cal BP was one of the greatest climatic events of the Holocene, which had a significant impact on the Neolithic population of Southern and Eastern Europe, Antalya, the Middle East, and North Africa.

During the 160–400-year cooling phase, several major environmental changes took place, such as an increase in the ocean and seawater; cooling the average temperature by ~ 3,3+/–1,1° C; drought in North Africa and the Middle East. The cooling affected the transgression of the Black Sea, whose rapid rise in water levels affected the population of the northern Black Sea coast.

The sharp drainage of the climate between 43° – 50° N latitudes has caused active migration processes among the Neolithic population in Anatolia, the Balkans, the Danube, and the Steppe Black Sea coast.

On the territory of Ukraine, the cold event occurred during the transition from the Mesolithic to the Early Neolithic. Late Mesolithic Hrebenykz, Kukrek and Donetsk cultures coexisted with the early Neolithic tribes of the Bug-Dniester, Sursk and Azov-Dnieper cultures. Under the influence of changes in natural areas in the northern Black Sea coast and the arrival of a new population of migrants from Anatolia to the Balkans and the Danube, there are active waves of local migration to the Bug-Dniester interfluve and settlement of the Middle to Lower Dnieper steppe.

Simultaneously with the cooling, these societies underwent profound changes that could be caused by the settlement of new groups in the region. One of the "characteristics" of these new cultural groups is the production of ceramic objects, such as pottery and the spread of a new funeral tradition — straightened on the back with outstretched arms and legs, which becomes the main for Mariupol-type cemeteries.

Keywords: cooling event 8.2 ky cal BP; migration; Neolithic population; East Europe; Cemeteries of the Mariupol type.

Language: English

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Cite as:

Andriiovych, M. 2020. The transformation of the Neolithic population into tribes with the Mariupol type cemeteries after the cooling event 8.2 ky BP. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 23-30.

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020)
Catastrophic changes in vegetation ca. 8.2 ka & Lake Settlements in the Volga-Oka region (based on the site Zamostje 2), 73-89.

Lozovskaya Olga¹, Ershova Ekaterina²-
¹Institute for the History of Material Culture of Russian Academy of Sciences
¹ORCID: 0000-0001-5536-0773
²-Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of International Relations, Kazan Federal University
²-ORCID: 0000-0002-5421-9572

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-73-89
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-73-89

Abstract:
The most important changes in the economy and material culture in foraging societies of the Eastern Europe forest zone on the eve of the spread of ceramic production coincided with the 8.2 ka Cold Event and its consequences. We consider these changes in the local example of the site Zamostje 2 located in Volga-Oka region, using results of long-time multidisciplinary research. Findings of our archaeological and paleoecological studies and comparison with regional data draw a picture of local changes in the context of ecological instability and discontinuity of material culture traditions in the second half of the 7th – beginning of the 6th mil. Cal BC.

Keywords: 8.2 ka Cold Event, paleoenvironmental changes, Upper Volga region, Late Mesolithic, last hunter-gatherer societies, lake settlement Zamostje 2.

Language: English

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Cite as:
Lozovskaya, O., Ershova, E. 2020. Catastrophic changes in vegetation ca. 8.2 ka & Lake Settlements in the Volga-Oka region (based on the site Zamostje 2. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 73-89.

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020).
Rapid climatic event 8200 cal BP and social dynamics in North-Westernn Pontic region, 31-39

Kiosak Dmytro¹, Ivanova Svitlana², Matviishyna Zhanna³
¹I.I. Mechnikov National University (Odessa, Ukraine)
¹ORCID: 0000-0002-3349-4989
²Institute of archaeology of NAS Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine)
²ORCID: 0000-0002-3318-8244
³Institute of geography of NAS Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine)

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-31-39
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-31-39

Abstract:
The article treats the archaeological record of North-Western Pontic region in search of traces of 8200 calBP event. The two different approaches are applied: summation of 14C dates and a site-oriented approach. In the framework of the latter we refer to materials of Melnychna Krucha site, which contains a sequence covering 7500-1200 y. BCE. Twelve AMS dates highlight the probable gap in the sequence of human habitation on the site around 6250-6000 y. BCE, around the expected timing of the paleoclimatic oscillation. It seems that the event was accompanied by drastic changes in the watering of major rivers of Northern Pontic area like Southern Buh or Dnieper.

Keywords: abrupt climate change, radiocarbon dating, subsistence patterns, soil sequence.

Language: English

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Cite as:

Kiosak, D., Ivanova, S., Matviishyna, Zh. 2020. Rapid climatic event 8200 cal BP and social dynamics in North-Westernn Pontic region. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 31-39.

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VITA ANTIQUA, 12 (2020)                                                      ISSN 2522-9419 (online), ISSN 2519-4542 (print)
Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 12, 2020, Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies.
Materials of the session ‘The Climate Impact on European Neolithic Societies During the 8.2-ky BP Events Near River Basins and Lakes’. #Networking, 26th Virtual Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists (August 24-30, 2020)
Some remarks on climate impact on prehistoric societies, 15-22

Sławomir Kadrow
Institute of Archaeology, Rzeszуw University
ORCID: 0000-0002-7169-1027

DOI:10.37098/VA-2020-12-15-22
http://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2020-12-15-22

Abstract:
In some archaeological studies there is a tendency emphasize climate with special strength as a driving force of cultural change in studies covering larger areas over longer periods of time. Migrations are often linked to climate change. In contrast, in small-region studies, researchers are more likely to explore internal factors of change, such as inequality and conflict. On the other hand, in publications postulating the impact of climate on changes in prehistoric societies, it is quite easy to notice the dependence of their authors on a specific theoretical option. For this reason, this article provides an overview of them (classical evolutionism, anthropo-geography, culture-historical school, some processualists). For the same reason, selected examples of positive references to climate as a driving force for change and examples where researchers point to other causes are included here. The conclusion stated that even the best documented influence of climatic factors did not affect people directly. As a component of the natural environment that remains outside human culture, climate cannot influence migration or culture change directly. It is part of so called border conditions of cultural and civilizational phenomena, and it may be a necessary condition of cultural change, but never its sufficient condition. Reconstruction of necessary and sufficient conditions requires knowledge of images of the world prevalent in a given society, which involve moral and practical suggestions about how to solve organizational and legal problems in an essential framework of world – view and religion.

Keywords: climate, migrations, culture change, theoretical options, social conflict.

Language: English

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Cite as:

Kadrow S. 2020. Some remarks on climate impact on prehistoric societies. VITA ANTIQUA 12. Climate Impact on East European Neolithic Societies, p. 15-22.

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VITA ANTIQUA Library                                                           ISBN 966-95597-1-5

One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture. Collection of scientific articles. K., 1999

(DE)

Die handgemachte Keramik aus dem Gräberfeld des 3. - 4. Jhs. n. Chr. in Druznoe auf der Krim, 322-371

Vladimir VLASOV

Im Keramikm&terial von Drurime überwiegen deutlich handgemachte Tongefässe. Sie machen 75 % (432 Gefässe) des ganzen keramischen Material aus. Unter d' r scheibenged e ten Keranvk beträgt der Anteil von rorglasie-’er Keramik 23,25 %, von Amphoren 1,25 % und von grauer Keramik des Cernpchov Typus 0 5%. Die Untersuchung der handgemachten Keramik wurde aufgrund der typologischen Gliederung, im Hinblick auf morphologische Merkmale durchgefiihrt. Die handgemachten Keramikformen sind folgendermassen vertreten: Schüssel -13 Typen, insgesamt 137 Exemplare; Teller - ein Typ, 2 Exemplare; kleine Teller -.? Typen 6 Exemplare; Untertassen - ein Typ, 2 Exemplare; Salzschüsselchen - 2 Typen, 4 Exemplare, Fussschalen - ein Typ, 1 Exemplar; Töpfe 16 Typen , 77 Exemplare; Krüge - 11 Typen, 94 Exemplare, Schalen - 12 Typen, 88 Exemplare, Becher - 7 Typen, 11 Exemplare; Tassen - 6 Typen, 10 Exemplare.

Zahlreiche Gefässe sind mit Rdiefomament, seltener mit Dellendekoration verziert. Viele Gefässhenkel sind am Ende mit Relieffortsätzen, manchmal auch mit plastischen Vögel- und Tierdarstellungen versehen

Aus dem Vergleich des handgemachten Keramikmaterials aus Dru/noe mit anderen Gräberfeldern der nördlichen Schwarzmeerküste, der Krim und den benachbarten Gebieten ergibt sich, dass ich im Keramikkomplex aus Drufeme einige Gefässformen verschiedener Herkunft unterscheiden lassen. An der ersten Stelle sind zwei quantitativ gleiche Gruppen der handgemachten Keramik des neutralen ethnischen Charaters zu nennen Es handelt sich hier um weit verbreitete Formen, deren erste Gruppe die bronzezeitlichen und spätskythischen Traditionen aufweist, während die zweite in einigen Gräberfeldern der Krim des 3 - 4 Jhs. vertreten ist (90 Gefässe - 20,8 %). Die zweite Stelle nimmt die handgemachte Keramik nordkaukasischer Herkunft (49 Gefässe - 11,3 %) ein, die dritte - die Keramik, die im europäischen Teil des Bosporanischen Reiches hergestellt wurde (37 Gefässe - 8,6 %). Obwohl die spätskythische archäologische Kultur im 3. - 4. Jh. nicht mehr existierte, setzten sich die für sie charakteristischen handgemachten Keramikformen fort (28 Gefässe - 6,52 %) So machen die spätskythischen Formen 3,5 % (15 Gefässe) des gesamten Keramikmaterials aus, während die Gefässe, die bei den Skythen am Ende des 4. und im 5. Jh. v. Chr. auftauchten, nur in 7 Exemplaren (1,62 %) vertreten sind. Noch seltener kommen die Formen vor, deren Herstellungsart von den Spätskythen aus dem mittleren Dneprgebiet auf die Krim mitgebracht wurde (6 Gefässe - 1,4 %). Nur vier Gefässe (0,93 %) lassen sich aus dem Flussgebiet des Boh herleiten. Enge Verbindungen mit dem unteren Dongebiet und Kuban, d.h. mit ethnisch gemischter, im Grunde genommen vorwiegend meotischer Bevölkerung, weisen 25 Gefässe auf (5,8 %). Etwas schwächer ist die sarmatische Keramik repräsentiert (20 Gefässe - 4,65 %). Unter den Keramikformen befinden sich auch diejeniegen, die ihre Entsprechungen in den Przeworsk-, Wielbark- und Cernjachov-Kultur finden (13 Gefässe - 3%). Die Population, die in Druznoe ihre Toten beisetzte, konnte ziemlich genau die antike rotglasierte Keramik nachahmen (14 Gefässe - 3,25 %). Relativ zahlreich sind Formen mit Merkmalen von verschiedenen, oben genannten Gruppen (48 Gefässe - 11,1 %). Schliesslich gibt es auch Formen der unbestimmten Flerkunft (14 Gefässe - 3,25 %).

Die handgemachte Keramik aus DruZnoe ist demnach ethnisch unterschiedlich. Die ausgesonderten Formengruppen lassen feststellen, dass in der polyethnischen Population, die das Gräberfeld belegte, die Alanen die grösste Rolle spielten. Mit ihnen lebten die Sarmaten, Spätskythen, Bosporaner, Meoten und Germanen. Eine ähnliche Zusammensetzung der Keramikformen kommt auch in den anderen Krimer Gräberfeldern vor, die zeitlich und im Hinblick auf die materielle Kultur der Nekropole in Druznoe nahestehen. Es handelt sich hier um die Gräberfelder in Nejzac, Pereval’noe, Ozemoe Ш, Suvorovo, Manguä, Cemaja reika, Inkerman und Sovchoz 10. Die grösste Formenvielfalt vertritt die Keramik aus Nejzac (unpublizierte Ausgrabungen von I. Chrapunov). Es ist zu vermuten, dass ähnliche Mischpopulationen auch die anderen Regionen der zentralen und südwestlichen Krim bewohnten. Die Analyse der handgemachten Keramik hat ermöglicht, die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Population von Druznoe im 3. - 4 Jh. zu rekonstruieren. Um den Entstehungsprozess dieser Gruppe, besonders in der frühen Phase, zu verfolgen, ist es jedoch nötig, auch die anderen Grabbeigaben und den Bestattungsritus zu untersuchen.

Infolge von langwierigen Kriegen verloren die Spätskythen seine Unabhängigkeit und wurden am Ende des ersten Jahrzehntes des 3. Jhs. vermutlich ins Bosporanische Reich einverleibt. Es ist möglich, dass während dieser skythisch-bosporanischen Kriege, auf die Krim neue Gruppen von Barbaren kamen, welche die birituellen Nekropolen in Bel’bek 1, Skalistoe III, Tankovoe, Sovchoz 10, Cemaja reöka und das Brandgräberfeld in Aj-Todor (Grab 34) hinterliessen. Der Beigaben- und Bestattungssitte nach handelt es sich hier um die Sarmaten und Germanen, die häufig in einer Gemeinschaft lebten.

Aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach, wurden die Gräberfelder mit nur Skelettbestattungen, wie Ozemoe III, Pereval’noe, Nejzac, Suvorovo und Druznoe, von den Sarmaten angelegt. Die frühesten Grabkomplexe in diesen Nekropolen datieren ins zweite Viertel des 3. Jhs. Ihre charakteristischen Züge sind Nischengräber, seltener einfache Erdbestatttungen, in denen die handgemachte Keramik völlig fehlt. Aufgrund der Steinkonstruktion in der Eingangsgrube des Grabes 67 in Druznoe, kommt noch der spätskythische Anteil in Frage.

Ab zweiter Hälfte des 3. Jhs. kamen auf die Krim zahlreiche Gruppen der Alanen, die früher in Nordkaukasus lebten. Ihnen schlossen sich die Sarmaten von den Ostgebieten der nördlichen Schwarzmeerküste, die mit dem Leben von in den 40-er Jahren des 3. Jhs. zerstörten Siedlungen davongekommenen Meoten und ein Teil von Bosporanem an. Sie siedelten sich in denselben Orten an, wo früher die Sarmaten lebten, deren Hinterlassenschaft der frühe Horizont in Druznoe, Nejzac, Pereval’noe, Ozemoe III und Suvorovo ist. Vermutlich gleichzeitig mit den Immigranten, vor allem den Alanen, oder aber etwas später, kamen vom Norden her die sarmatischen und germanischen Stämme. Mit den Alanen vereint, bereiteten sie den Spätskythen das Ende. Irgendwelche spätskythische Gruppen wanderten ins Borporanische Reich aus, die anderen kamen nach Chersones; diejenigen, die auf der Halbinsel geblieben sind, haben sich an die neue Situation adaptiert und bewohnten vor allem den zentralen und südwestlichen Teil der Krim.

Nach allen diesen Ereignissen erfolgte im barbarischen Milieu ein intensiver Prozess, der zur Entstehung einer synkretischen Kultur führte. Das Mischvolk wurde von spätantiken und frühmittelalterlichen Autoren «Skythen», «Skythotauren», «Goten», «Alanen» und «Gotalanen» genannt.

Am Ende des 4. Jhs. verliess die Bevölkerung der zentralen Krim ihre Sitze, wahrscheinlich vor der Gefähr des Hunnenangriff in sichere Regionen der Hauptkette des Krimgebirges flüchtend. Die Nekropolen Druinoe, Nejzac und Pereval’noe hörten auf. Im Gebirge wurden neue Gräberfelder in Skalistoe und Lucistoe angelegt, mit derselben hangemachten Keramik und Bestattungssitte. Aus der polyethnischen barbarischen Bevölkerung als Hauptbasis entstand die mittelalterliche Krim-Population.

Language: Russian

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Vlasov, V. 1999. Lepnaya keramika iz nekropolya III-IV vv. n.e. Druzhnoe v Krymu (Die handgemachte Keramik aus dem Gräberfeld des 3. - 4. Jhs. n. Chr. in Druznoe auf der Krim). In: Levada, M.E. (ed.). Sto let chernyahovskoy kulture (One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture). Collection of scientific articles. K.: VITA ANTIQUA Library, 322-371 (in Russian).

VITA ANTIQUA Library                                                           ISBN 966-95597-1-5

One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture. Collection of scientific articles. K., 1999

(DE)

Koch- und Tischkeramik der spätskythischen Burgwälle im unteren Dnjeprgebiet, 298-321

Nadeshda GAVRILJUK, Valentina KRAPIVINA

Mit Hilfe der Untersuchungen über die spätskythische Keramik wird es möglich, das Problem der ethnischen Zusammensetzung und der sozial-politischen Entwicklung der «Kleinskythien» am unteren Dnjepr zu lösen.

In der handgemachten Keramik überwiegen schwachprofilierte Töpfe, wahrend weitmündige und mit im Querschnitt bogenförmigem Hals seltener Vorkommen. Die Töpfe von zwei letztgenannten Typen sind an der Nordschwarzmeerküste von der Spätbronzezeit bis in die Mitte der älteren Eisenzeit weit verbreitet. Das Auftreten im unteren Dnjeprgebiet der Kruge, konischen Fussschalen und einigen anderen Typen lässt sich durch den hellenistischen Einfluss erklären. Im allgemeinen, unterscheidet sich der keramische Komplex der «spätskythischen» Kultur am unteren Dnjepr von der früheren «skythischen» durch die starke Hellenisierung. Die handgemachte Keramik wurde als Kochgeschirr verwendet, deshalb ist der Anteil von scheibengedrehten Gefässen in den Burgwällen am unteren Dnjepr, im Gegensatz zu Olbia, wesentlich kleiner. Graue, verzierte und rotglasierte Gefässe hatten dort die Funktion des Tischgeschirres. Bemerkenswert ist, dass am unteren Dnjepr die Tonlampen vollkommen fehlen, im Gegensatz zu den antiken Städten. Die scheibengedrehte Keramik aus den Burgwällen am unteren Dnjepr findet ihre Entsprechungen vor allem in Olbia, was bedeutet, dass diese Stadt der Hauptlieferant für die Bevölkerung der spätskythischen Burgwälle war.

Das ganze Keramikmaterial der spätskythischen Burgwälle des unteren Dnjeprgebietes wird nicht später als ins 3. Jh., vdr allem ins l.Jh. bis zur ersten Hälfte des 3. Jhs. n. Chr. datiert. Früher wurde diese Keramik ins 3. - 4. Jh. n. Chr. eingesetzt. Die Entstehung der spätskythischen Burgwälle fällt in die Zeit, als das Leben in Olbia in der zweiten Hälfte des 3. bis zur Mitte des 2. Jhs. v. Chr. aufhörte. Dies mag bedeuten, dass ein Teil der Population von Olbia in der Einrichtung der Burgwälle teilnahm. Nach der Zerstörung der Stadt Olbia von den Geten um die Mitte des 1. Jhs. v. Chr. versteckte sich wahrscheinlich ein Teil der Stadteinwohner unter der Bevölkerung des unteren Dnjeprgebietes, wo sie einen hellenistischen Einfluss übte. Diesen Prozess belegt der keramische Komplex aus den Burgwällen am unteren Dnjepr.

Ab der zweiten Hälfte des 2. Jhs. n. Chr. lässt sich der Niedergang der Burgwälle am unteren Dnjepr beobachten und am Ende des 2. Jhs. n. Chr. wurden sie verlassen. Wenige Ausnahmen sind Burgwälle in Krasnyj Majak, Ljubimovskoe und Velikolepetichskoe. In derselben Zeit, erlebt Olbia und die Nachbarstädte eine Blütezeit (2. Hälfte des 2.-1. Hälfte des 3. Jhs. n. Chr.), was mit der Dislozierung der römischen Truppen zu verbunden ist. Es ist möglich, dass ein Teil der Population aus dem unteren Dnjeprgebiet an den südlichen Bug auswanderte. Das definitive Aufhören der Burgwälle des unteren Dnjeprgebietes erfolgt in der Zeit des Goteneinfalls, d.h. vermutlich in der zweiten Hälfte des 3. Jhs..

Language: Russian

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Gavriljuk, N, Krapivina, V. 1999. Kuhonnaya i stolovaya keramika pozdneskifskih gorodishch Nizhnego Podneprov'ya (Koch- und Tischkeramik der spätskythischen Burgwälle im unteren Dnjeprgebiet). In: Levada, M.E. (ed.). Sto let chernyahovskoy kulture (One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture). Collection of scientific articles. K.: VITA ANTIQUA Library, 298-321 (in Russian).

VITA ANTIQUA Library                                                           ISBN 966-95597-1-5

One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture. Collection of scientific articles. K., 1999

(DE)

Die Goten im Kimmerischen Bosporus, 277-297

Michel KAZANSKI

Im vorliegendem Beitrag wird eine Gruppe der germanischen Funde auf der Ostkrim und auf Taman besprochen,die direkte Verbindungen mit den Goten aufweisen. Die Anwesenheit der Germanen im Bosporanischen Reich belegen nur einzelne Funde aus den Schichten und Nekropolen der lokalen Bevölkerung Die Funde des Cemjachov-Typus in Bosporus datieren in die Stufen C3 - Dl (300/320-400/410) und sollen mit den Goten identifiziert werden, die in Bosporus um 400 von Iohannes Chrysostomos erwähnt worden sind. Am Ende des 4. und in der ersten Hälfte des 5. Jhs. (Stufe D2 - 380/400-440/450) treten in Bosporus germanische Gegenstände auf, die für das mittlere Donaugebiet, u.z. für den „fürstlichen” Untersiebenbrunn-Horizont charakteristisch sind. Es ist interessant, dass am Ende der Stufe C3 und in der Stufe Dl diese Gegenstände in die Gräber der bosporanischen sozialen Oberschicht gelangten, die eine griechisch-sarmatische Bestattungstradition pflegte. Die germanischen Funde sprechen dafür, dass die Germanen in den regierenden Kreis des Bosporus eingeschlossen winden. Es wurden auch Familienverbindungen geschlossen, da es sich hier um Familiengräber handelt. Möglicherweise sind diese Funde ein materielles Zeugnis der Notiz des Iohannes Chrysostomos (404) über einem gotischen König in Bosporus.

Auf der Ostkrim blieben die Goten auch in der Hunnenzeit und spielten sicher eine wichtige kriegerisch-politische Rolle in der Völkerwanderungszeit in Bosporus. In der Tat, in den 50-er Jahren des 5. Jhs. waren hier die Goten-Tetraxiten eine einzige wirkliche Kraft, die imstande war, die Hunnen an der Übergängen auf Kertsch und bei ihren Übersiedlungen von der Donau in den Nordkaukasus nach der Niederlage am Nedao zu verhindern. Wie bekannt, der Konflikt endete mit dem Frieden und die Goten gingen mit den Hunnen zusammen an die asiatische Seite des Bosporus. Damit war die Geschichte der bosporanischen Goten beendet.

Die letzte Etappe ihrer Geschichte spiegelt sich in den donauländischen Funden wider, die in der Stufe D3 (450-480/490) in Bosporus auftreten, wahrend die schriftlichen Quellen über die Goten in Bosporus nach 450-460 schweigen. Zahlreiche germanische Funde der zweiten Hälfte des 5. und des 6. Jhs., vor allem Knopffibeln und grosse Gürtelschnallen, sind in der balkanischen und der donau-italischen Tradition hergestellt. Ihr Vorkommen in Bosporus steht vielmehr mit den Dislozierungen der byzantinischen Truppen, in welchen die Barbaren dienten, in Zusammenhang, nicht aber mit der Anwesenheit der Goten-Tetraxiten.

Language: Russian

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Kazanski, M. 1999. Goty na Bospore Kimmerijskom (Die Goten im Kimmerischen Bosporus). In: Levada, M.E. (ed.). Sto let chernyahovskoy kulture (One hundred years of Chernyakhov culture). Collection of scientific articles. K.: VITA ANTIQUA Library, 277-297 (in Russian).