Skip to content

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 81-106
From Mammoth to Fox: functional identification of Eliseevichi 1 within Upper Pleniglacial settlements of the the Desna valley
Demay L.¹, Patou-Mathis M.¹, Péan S.¹, Khlopachev G.A.², Sablin M.V³
¹- Department of Prehistory, National Museum of Natural History, Paris (France)
²-Department of Archaeology, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Saint-Petersburg (Russia)
³-Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, SaintPetersburg (Russia)

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-81-106
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-81-106

ABSTRACT

This study examines the faunal record in the Desna valley (Ukraine and Russia) during the end of the second part of the Upper Pleniglacial (20 000 – 14 000 BP). We have made the zooarchaeological study of the faunal remains of Eliseevichi 1 - 1935-36. The faunal spectrum is relatively restricted, typical of a cold and dry environment with the presence of Mammuthus primigenius, Rangifer tarandus, Canis lupus, Alopex lagopus rossicus and Ursus arctos. As expected, we highlighted an important exploitation of mammoth related to ivory industry. However, we also brought to light an intense exploitation of canid resources related to osseous industry and furskin activities. The interpretation of the site as base camp is questionable. We compared the zooarchaeological data obtained from Eliseevichi 1 faunal remains with other Upper Pleniglacial archaeological sites in the Desna valley. Our aim is to better understand the paleoecology of the Desna valley by the analysing of wildlife spectra and the human exploitation of fauna during the Upper Pleniglacial. Furthermore, we can highlight the degree of specialization of human groups to exploit species, notably mammoth (meat, bones, ivory) and carnivores (fur, bones). These comparisons were made taking into account the preservation of the sites and the different types of occupations by human groups, to discuss on types of activities and storage of animal resources, in the Desna valley.

Key words: Mammoth, Eliseevichi 1 site, Desna valley, Prehistoric Archaeology, Upper Palaeolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: English

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: 902.67(477.51)”632”

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 69-80
Stages of research of Mezhyrich site
Dudnyk D.V.¹
¹- Department of Archaeology and Museology, Historical Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-69-80
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-69-80

ABSTRACT

The article deals with the actual problems of research stages of the Mezhyrich Upper Palaeolithic site. There are four stages of research. The first stage is an exploration of I. Pidoplichko (1966-1974), the second is research made by M. Gladkykh (1976-1989), N. Korniets (1989-2002) is the third and the research of D. Nuzhnyi, S. Péan and P. Shydlovskyi is the fourth stage (since 2003). All of these stages have the different specific of research, advantages and disadvantages. The first excavation of the Mezhyrich site occurred half a century ago, in 1966. During this period, researchers focused on dwellings mainly. It gave good opportunity to explore the Palaeolithic architecture. However, consequently, area around dwellings had remained unexplored until 1970th. I. Pidoplichko didn`t leave scientific reports. M.  Gladkykh has explored the fourth dwelling and household complexes around all dwellings of the site, architecture of the fourth dwelling and lithic industry. He left many reports, but they still not published. N. Korniets worked on the site according to the archeological methodology. She left reports of excavation. In addition, were used new research methods that gave an opportunity for better material fixing. The research has also focused on biological aspects. Nowadays scientists continue researching the site. Every year more and more specialists are interested in researching and publishing the results of excavations. The Mezhyrich site attracts scientists and students from Ukraine and abroad such as the USA, France, Switzerland etc. Modern stage has many publications made by D. Nuzhnyi, P. Shydlovskyi, S. Pean etc. Excavations conducted by Ukrainian scientists such as I.  Pidoplichko, M.  Gladkyh, N.  Korniets, D.  Nuzhnyi, P. Shydlovskyi with participation of foreign colleagues from the USA, Russia, France and Belgium. Joint expedition with researches of various scientific directions allows to apply research methods, which improve the expansion of knowledge about the site, its flora and fauna, lithic industry of mammoth hunters, historical and architectural reconstruction. The results of research gave a possibility to describe the climatic conditions of the Late Pleistocene 15 000 years ago. Special exploration helped to determine the absolute dating of the site, set the type of settlement, explore the technique of making tools and define it as the epigravettian. The problem of conservation of the fourth dwelling is still relevant.

Key words: Upper Palaeolithic, mammoth hunters, Epigravettian, Mezhyrich site, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: 902.2(091)(477.46)”632”

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 61-68
Magnetic Measurements on Palaeolithic Sites at Velykyj Sholes Ridge in Transcarpathia
Bondar K.M.¹, Ryzhov S.M.², Tymofeieva Zh.B³
¹-  SEI “Institute of Geology”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
²-  Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
³- DGP “Ukrgeophisics”, Kyiv

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-61-68
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-61-68

ABSTRACT

In 2015 we performed magnetic surveys and laboratory measurements of low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf) and the frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (Kfd) in soil samples from excavation on the sites Maly Rakovets IV and Velykyj Sholes. The geomagnetic field within the area 19x19 m, at the western wall of the 2006 yr excavation on multilayered Paleolithic site Maly Rakovets IV varies in the range 49100-49650 nT. The small linear dimensions of the local magnetic anomalies (4-8 m), their irregular shape and high gradients of the edges suggest underground heterogeneities to the depth of 5 m to be the sources of anomalies. χlf of soil in the pits №19 in H-5 excavated square, which has a depth of 5.5 m and opens loess and tuff layers, varies in between 50 ... 1148 * 10-8 m3/kg. Maximum values are observed at the depth intervals 3,2-3,6m and 4,1-4,6 m. Kfd makes 10-14% in the surface layer to a depth of 0.5 m (Holocene and Vitachyv horizons according to Matviyishyna et al., 2013), in the interval 1,0-1,15 m (Priluky horizon) and 1,7-1,85 m (Zavadivka horizon) indicating the dominance of small superparamagnetic grains in the magnetic fraction that have accumulated due to pedogenesis. Lower layers of the section show low Kfd =1,3-7,9%, demonstrating the dominance of multidomain grains of primary magnetic minerals. The absolute values of the geomagnetic field induction on a plot of 138 m2 surveyed on Paleolithic location Velykyj Sholes are 48650-49550 nT. The area of positive magnetic anomaly coincides with the boundaries of the local outcrop of stone material composed of volcanic glass (mostly rhyolite) and quartzite and sandstone pebbles. The linear zone of high gradient magnetic field within the excavation corresponds to border of archaeological finds distribution. χlf gradually increases down to excavation wall profile from 32*10-8 m3/kg at the surface to 94*10-8 m3/kg at the depth of 0.3 m, on the tuff rock weathering crust. Magnetic measurements on Paleolithic sites at Velykyj Sholes ridge in Transcarpathia is an important source of information on planigraphy and stratigraphy of the monuments.

Key words: Magnetic measurements, Palaeolithic sites,Velykyj Sholes ridge, Prehistoric Archaeology

Language: Ukrainian

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: 902.65(477.87)”632”

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 46-60
Paleogeoraphic Situation of Pleistocene and Living Conditions of Ancient Man in Areas of the Velykyj Sholes Ridge
Matviishyna Zh.M.¹, Karmazinenko S.P.¹, Ryzhov S.M.².
¹-  Department of Paleogeography, Institute of Geography NAS Ukraine, Kyiv
² Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-46-60
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-46-60

ABSTRACT

The article is devoted to the reconstruction of paleogeographic environments and living conditions of ancient man in the area of the Velykyj Sholes ridge. In the basis of this reconstruction, the study of Pleistocene soils and sediments of the Paleolithic multilayer site of Malyj Rakovets  IV in Transcarpathia are taken. In the introduction defines Paleogeography as a science and its main tasks and structural units. Noted the importance and potential of joint integrated paleogeographic and archeological studies of Paleolithic sites. Special attention was focused on the study of anthropogenic deposits since discoveries of ancient man were found there. We present summarized results of the paleopedological studies (including micromorphological analysis) of soils and loess deposits in six pits. In those pits we were able to identify the following stratigraphic horizons: Martonosha (mr), Lubny (lb), Zavadivka (zv), Dnieper (dn), Kaydaky (kd), Tyasmyn (ts), Pryluky (pl), Uday (ud), Vytachiv (vt), Bug (bg) and Holocene (hl). The most artifacts from volcanic materials (mainly obsidian) were confined to the sediments of the Zavadivka, Kaydaky, Pryluky, Vytachiv and Holocene horizons. As a result of this work the favorable climatic conditions, availability of raw materials and stone artifacts indicate that ancient man lived in the area of the Great Sholes ridge during the Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.

Key words: Paleogeoraphic, Pleistocene, Velykyj Sholes ridge,Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: [551.8:903](477.87)”632”

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 38-43
Geographical Approach in Prehistoric Archaeology at the turn of the 20th – 21st Centuries
Smyntyna O.V.¹
¹- Department of Archaeology and Ethnology of Ukraine, Faculty of History of Odesa National I.I. Mechnikov University, Odesa

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-38-43
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-38-43

ABSTRACT

Attention to spatial and geographic frameworks of paleohistorical reconstructions became one of the most significant trends of European science at the last third of the 20th century. This time is marked by the origin of series of archaeological branches, and the most widespread among which are landscape archaeology, geoarchaeology, and environmental archaeology. In frames of each of them developing the unique set of concept, research methods and theoretical backgrounds for interpretation of human-environment relationships basing on the archaeological excavations data. Most broadly shared at that time are adaptation theory and connected with it concept of environmental stress and natural and ecological challenges theory. Accumulated fundamental empirical database and series of successful case studies allowed revision of methodological base for the conceptualization of nature and society interaction. Recent emphasis in this context is connected with the application of theories of sustainable development and environmental resilience, as well as niche construction theory. Moreover, during the past years, can be observed an actualization of concepts connected with the conceptualization of spatial frames of nature and society interaction and modelling of feedforwards and feedbacks in the ‘nature – ancient population’ system on the level of Anthropocene – geographic zone – landscape – microregion – niche – particular settlement.

Key words: Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe, Geographical approach

Language: Ukrainian

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: [903:504.54](091)

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research
Archaeology of the Alpine Space. Research on the foothills, valley systems and high mountain landscapes of the Alps
Albert Hafner, Mirco Brunner, Julian Laabs¹
¹Department of Prehistoric Archaeology, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 16-37

DOI:10.37098/VA-2017-9-16-37
https://doi.org/10.37098/VA-2017-9-16-37

ABSTRACT

This paper presents examples of landscape archaeological research within an Alpine context. The landscapes around and within the European Alps are highly diversified. The most significant differences lie in the altitudes, which range between 400 and over 3000 m.a.s.l. Main topographic features are hilly pre-Alpine areas, broad inner-Alpine valleys reaching far into the Alps and high-Alpine zones above the treeline. Our examples span from wetland-related pile dwellings on lakes and bogs from the pre-alpine areas, graves and settlements on inner-Alpine hilltops and river terraces to high-Alpine passes and campsites. Archaeological evidence shows that settlement activities began to occur in all regions presented from the early 5th millennium BC onwards. Palaeoecological evidence from the pre-Alpine areas could even push this timeline back to the mid-6th millennium BC. We can assume a high degree of mobility between all these regions. Whilst lake and bog settlements have been known for a long time and have been studied in detail, researchers only began to focus on high-Alpine areas two decades ago. The Alps and their surrounding pre-Alpine landscapes are a fascinating area of archaeological research especially in terms of the period of the first farmers. Whilst we are constantly gaining a better understanding of how early agrarian societies managed to penetrate from different pre-Alpine lowland areas to the zones above the treeline, we are still far from being able to paint a clear picture. The long-term evolution of human settlement activities turned the pre-Alpine regions and parts of the large inner-Alpine valleys from pristine landscapes into urban spaces with small inner-Alpine valleys and areas above the treeline developing highly sustainable land-use activities that have left their mark on the cultural landscapes of the Alps.

Key words: Landscape Archaeology, Alpine space, Neolithic, Bronze age, pile dwellings

Language: English

PDF:DOWNLOAD DOWNLOAD

UDK: [902:504.54](234.3)

x4kucwwkpty

This volume of scientific works dedicated to contemporary researches of the issues of environment – prehistoric societies interaction in Europe. The publication includes materials that demonstrate the interdisciplinary approach to the study of prehistoric sites. The proposed collection will be useful for anyone interested in prehistory, archaeology and geography of Europe – for archaeologists, geographers, biologists, historians, ethnographers ...continue reading "Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe. – VITA ANTIQUA, №9."

The articles presented in this collection cover different aspects of trade connections of North Black Sea region in ancient and medieval time. The most of articles are dedicated to amphorae - basic trade packing, used in sea transportation.

A line of original unpublished materials are brought into scientific circulation: the results of ground and submarine excavations. There are published ...continue reading "Sea Trade in North Black Sea Region. The collection of scientific articles. Kyiv, 2001"