VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 176-191

‘River People’ of the Northern Black Sea and Macedonia

Chausidis Nikos

Ss. Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, Institute for History of Art and Archaeology

ABSTRACT

Communication between the Northern Black Sea and Macedonia can be traced during all historical periods, that is, since prehistory up until the middle ages. Processes originating from the periods of the first use of the metal and the Early Middle Age are the most referred ones in the literature. This paper focuses on facts and acknowledgements, which refer to relations between these two geographical locations by the end of the 2nd millennium up until the first few centuries of the 1st millennium BC. Moreover, the already known archaeological facts will be supplemented with relevant written sources referring to exact historical events and populations and their ethnonyms, toponyms and other cultural features.

The article is based upon the thesis of the existence of intense relations between the Northern Black Sea and Macedonia towards the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, confirmed with various traditions related to rivers. Toponyms and ethnonyms containing the following roots sind-, sinth-, sith-, are given as a first indicator, confirmed in both regions through ancient sources, thus considering its Indo-Aryan interpretation as a river. Such interpretation is considered in context of the theories of Indo-Aryans moving south of the Northern Black Sea at the second half of the 2nd millennium BC; the Balkans being one of their directions. This last trajectory is related to the presence of Cimmerians and Hyperboreans at this peninsula, also verified in ancient written sources. A special significance is given to the ancient reports of Aria as the oldest name for Thrace. Numerous archaeological finds also refer to these motions, confirmed with a relevant literature. Moreover, different traditions witnessed in ancient sources are noted regarding the role of rivers in the spiritual culture of populations of both regions, especially in genealogical myths. Bull as a zoomorphic epiphany of river gods is especially emphasized, manifested with similar traditions, among which the roots taur-, taor found in the toponymy, ethnonymy and the theonymy of both regions.

Key words: Indo-Aryans, Macedonia, river cults, Thraco-Cimmerians, Sindoi, Tauria

Language: English

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UDK: 903’13(4-11)

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 165-175

Archaeological excavations and reconstructions of disappeared archaeological heritage (based on excavations in North-Western Russia)

Mazurkevich Andrey¹, Dolbunova Ekaterina¹, Ottonello Luca²

¹ The State Hermitage Museum

² University of Reading

ABSTRACT

Archaeological excavations allow us to investigate archaeological heritage, but at the same time, they lead to its destruction. Multi-layer archaeological sites, which were settled during multiple stages of occupation and include several cultural horizons, represent a number of events. Their “decoding” is possible only by application of various methods – archaeological, natural-scientific, as well as the use of virtual modelling. Archaeological excavations allow tracing of different stages of people inhabitation, whereas digital reconstruction gives the possibility to visualize these stages and reconstruct disappeared archaeological heritage, destroyed in the course of people activity during long time. In this case archaeological field documentation, precise recording, further researches and reconstructions based on them are tightly interrelated.

Combination of different methods gives the potential of preserving and telling the stories in a way that was never possible before; creating time pictures of explorable areas with an unprecedented level of detail by using animation and reconstruction methods, which could finally contribute a lot to interpretation of the sites. Computer-based visualisation seeks to represent the existing state, an evidence-based restoration or a hypothetical reconstruction of a cultural heritage object or site, and the extent and nature of any factual uncertainty. Such a combination of methods was applied during researches of Neolithic sites in North-Western Russia, in Dnepr-Dvina region. Analysis made in Dnepr-Dvina area allowed making virtual reconstructions of several sites, tracing particularities of artefacts deposition and cultural layers formation, identifying particularities of paleoenvironmental situation during different periods and finally visualization of ancient sites.

Key words: virtual reconstructions, digital archaeology, North-Western Russia, 3D modelling, archaeological excavations

Language: English

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UDK: 902.004.68

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 155-164

Between the seas: Baltic-Pontic contact space in the 3rd millennium BC

Szmyt Marzena

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Institute of Eastern Studies

ABSTRACT

This paper is devoted to some questions from the prehistory of areas situated between two seas: the Baltic in the north-west and the Black in the south-east. The territory in question is located between two big rivers – the Vistula and Dnieper. Despite many essential differences, in the 3rd millennium BC the areas between the Vistula and Dnieper rivers were covered by a network of multi-directional circulation of peoples, cultural patterns and innovations. This particular set of movements gradually commanded an increasingly greater area, where agrarian societies as well as quasi-pastoral and early pastoral ones functioned. The intensity of these relationships justifies using the name Baltic-Pontic contact space.

In the 3rd mill. BC the territories between the Vistula and Dnieper rivers were covered by a network of multi-directional circulation of peoples and cultural patterns, ideas and innovations. This particular set of movements gradually commanded an increasingly greater area, where agrarian societies as well as quasi-pastoral and early pastoral ones functioned. In this context, it is possible to identify thanks to their presence, direct and indirect markers that indicate the rise of cultural and social transformations, as well as changes that hitherto stable cultural boundaries underwent. No doubt, this proved to be one of the significant foundation stones at the close of the 3rd and 2nd mill. BC for the reorganisation of culture as far as the Baltic-Pontic region was concerned.

An especially great challenge, of a Pan-European rank, is posed by the question of relations between Central European and Steppe societies, especially from the point of view of the origins of the CWC circle. For this question, the key area appears to have been located between the Carpathians, the Western Bug and the Dniester or even Southern Bug rivers.

Key words: 3rd millennium BC, Vistula - Dnieper interfluve, circulation of ideas and people, cultural contacts

Language: English

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UDK: 903’1(4-11)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 146-154

Tripolye – Strategy and Results of an ongoing Ukrainian-European Project

Hofmann Robert¹, Shatilo Mila¹, Ohlrau René¹, Dal Corso Marta¹, Dreibrodt Stefan², Videiko Mikhailo³, Rassmann Knutº, Kirleis Wiebke¹, Müller Johannes¹

¹ Institute of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology, Kiel University

² Institute for Ecosystem Research, Kiel University;

³ Research Laboratory of Archaeology, Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University

º Roman Germanic Commission, German Archaeological Institute

ABSTRACT

Tripolye is the label of a very long-lasting and geographically widespread cultural complex of the Eneolithic of South-East and Eastern Europe. A joint Ukrainian-German research project has covered many aspects of Tripolye settlement systems and environmental conditions since 2011 (funded by the German Research Foundation and the Ukrainian Academy of Science; project directors: Johannes Müller, Kiel University and Mihailo Videiko, currently Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University).

The aim of the article is to identify the main tasks, strategies and some results of an ongoing Ukrainian-European Project that is dealing with the Tripolye culture phenomenon. In order to investigate emergence and decline of giant-settlements with thousands of houses and very specific spatial layouts, the challenge need to be mastered to perform representative archaeological and scientific sampling with reasonable efforts. This is only possible through the combination of non-destructive survey techniques, targeted archaeological excavations and the application of modern scientific methods. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the social, ecological, demographic and economic dimensions of such settlements and underlying transformations of human societies also in their regional variability, the consideration of different spatial investigation levels is required. In the first phases of the project, high-resolution magnetic surveys were applied to different large Tripolye settlements and exemplary investigations were carried out at the local scale of the Maidanetske settlement. At the current stage of the project, the studies focus more on the meso-and macro-regional level.

Currently, increased effort is made to understand the societal dynamics behind the emergence and the decline of singular Eneolithic mega-sites of the late 5th and the 4th millennium BCE which were situated in the Ukrainian forest steppe zone.

Key words: Tripolye, Eneolithic, mega-sites, research-strategy, magnetic survey, spatial scales

Language: English

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UDK: 903’13(4-11)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 135-145

Life on the Eastern frontiers of Old Europe

Videiko Mykhailo¹, Burdo Nataliia²

¹ Kyiv Borys Grinchenko University

² Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

The concept of Old Europe defines its boundaries with the proliferation of ancient farming cultures. Its eastern boundary is designated by the districts of Trypillia Сulture, the Eastern part of Cucuteni-Trypillia Cultural Unity, which reached Dnipro valley at the second half of the Vth Millenium BC. At this time, we see several local types of Trypillya Culture, each with some differences at material culture (mainly at pottery stylistics), some different features in the economy. Subsequently, this added to the difference in the public organization. These groups were completely autonomous, while there is a tendency for their active interaction, perhaps the subordination of the less powerful groups by stronger.

There were two groups of Trypillia BI-II stage farmers who came near to Dnipro after 4300-4200 BC; the first one – to Krasna river valley, the second – to lower Ros river basin. At this moment both groups practiced farming and held livestock, used large settlements as centers of social formations. At the same time, new settlers adopted some pottery traditions from Stog Culture. Probably it means that local communities included some part of Stog population.

Marked by complicated pottery assemblages ‘multiculturality” at Dnipro region developed around 600-800 years and led to more cultural differentiation inside the area to North from Ros River. At the same time groups with painted pottery, located to South from this area remained homogeneous.

For nearly a millennium (from 4300 to 3400-3200 BC), we can observe the few different strategies of life at the Trypillia Culture Eastern frontiers. From one side here we have some large groups, resistant to external influences, and small groups of population, aimed at the formation of multicultural communities. At the same time, trade was always an important connecting factor at all times.

Key words: Old Europe, Dnipro region, Eastern frontier, Trypillia Culture, multiculturality

Language: English

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UDK: 902(4-11)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 126-134

Geographic determinism and Trypillia contact networks, c. 3600 – 3400 BC

Diachenko Aleksandr

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

Geographic determinism causes the unequal informative potential of archaeological records. Preservation of artefacts made of different raw materials, especially organics, varies from region to region and from one period to the other. Unlike wetland sites with their assemblages of archaeological data, ecofacts, detailed absolute chronologies, settlements belonging to numerous cultural units of prehistoric Europe are characterized by significant gaps in representation of the remote past in material remains preserved till nowadays. This requires the search for analytical tools filling such gaps. Geographic determinism, obviously, influenced not only the preservation of archaeological data, but also human behavior in prehistory causing the choices for settlement locations, subsistence strategies and framing the trans-regional interactions in the remote past. The related set of issues may be approached by the application of network analysis, which is widely applied in mathematics, physics, computer sciences, theoretical ecology, sociology, epidemiology and other fields of science.

This paper deals with the Trypillya sites in Western Volhyn, c. 3600 – 3400 BCE aiming to answer the question of the influence of geographic determinism on the formation of long-distance interactions. Simulation of networks, which correlates with the available empirical evidence, has shown the openness to innovations provided by the structure of Trypillya networks that shared the modified innovations in pottery styles from the entire region further to the east. The frontier between the Funnel Beaker culture and Trypillya complex, despite its peripheral location, therefore, may be viewed as the ‘cultural incubator’. High intensity of interactions caused the hybridization of Trypillya traditions during a period of c. 100 years, while this ‘cultural epidemics’ is, probably, to a great extent caused by influences from the neighboring cultural units.

Key words: network analysis, contact networks, ‘cultural epidemics’, Trypillya, Funnel Beaker culture, Western Volhyn

Language: English

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UDK: 903’13(4-11)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 118-125

Ornamentation systems of Trypillia culture B I period tableware in the Middle Dniester area

Zhelaha Dmytro

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

The article deals with ornamental systems of Trypillian culture sites at the Middle Dniester area, basic concepts of sites periodization at the BI period of this territory. The article describes the existence of three different ornamentation systems that are widespread on these sites. These differences are cultural and chronological markers, which will help us for the further investigations, connected with relative chronology. These markers also helps to understand existence of various cultural tendencies and impulses at these sites.

At the BI period in the Middle Dniester area appear ornamentation systems, which interact and displace the previous ones. The most widespread systems for BI period are Cucuteni and Borysivka (typical also for so-called “Borysivka” group) ornamentation systems. At some sites (such as Ozaryntsi, Mykhalkove, etc.) also still existed at the BI period features of the Precucuteni ornamentation system, which traditionally connected with period A. The base of development these ceramic complexes are the late Precucuteni sites of A and BI periods (Luka-Vrublivetska, Bernovo-Luka, etc.).

Periphery of the Precucuteni sites became an area of formation another different Borysivka ornamentation system that shows impulse from the painted pottery sites. A synthesis of these different traditions is reflected in imitation of painting at the deep ornamented pottery. The Borysivka system also started to fade away among the ceramic complexes. At the final stage of BI period at Middle Dniester area started to prevail the Cucuteni ornamentation system with painted pottery.

Distinguishing the differences between ornamentation systems allow grouping the ceramic complexes according to stylistic features and fixing the main cultural tendencies of the BI period sites development. Based on this differences further investigations will let the scientists make more detailed analysis that will give us more complete picture of Trypillian culture development.

Key words: Eneolithic, Trypillya culture, Middle Dniester area, period B I, ornamentation system

Language: English

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UDK: 903.23(282.247.314-197.4)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 105-117

Mining and distribution of flint by the tribes of Cucuteni-Trypillian community

Pichkur Yevhen

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

Having quite a massive and diverse source of raw materials tribes of Cucuteni-Trypillian community begin its active exploitation and utilization already from the early stages of their existence and continue throughout all their following history. Flint industry of Cucuteni-Trypillian community centers around two main scenarios: extraction – processing – distribution and/or extraction – distribution – processing of flint materials.

There were a few completely different ways of flint extraction. First one (opened) was the simplest, did not require special skills and hard labor, being a simple collection of stones directly on the surface of the ground or in basseting areas (such as screes). Second one (closed) was the most complicated, requiring special tools, skills, hard labor and correspondingly more complicated organization of the community. This way implies flint extraction deep in its deposits that are often invisible from the surface crust. But it proved its value: flint miners obtained excellent high-quality materials for further processing, providing mineral wealth not only for their own communities, but also for close and remote related as well as non-Trypillian communities.

We distinguished ‘close’ and ‘remote’ radiuses of obtained flint materials distribution. First term describes self-sustainment of separate communities with raw materials and products of its` processing that were necessary for functioning of these collectives. Second term refers to directed massive production (extraction, processing) not only for internal needs, but mainly for exportation of obtained raw materials or finished wares, made of these materials.

Also a question was raised regarding massive supply of regions that had no qualitative mineral wealth (Bug and Dnipro regions, Bug–Dnieper interfluve area) with flint from the proximate microregion in the Velyka Vys’ basin in contradiction to widespread belief about a more remote ‘donator’ – Volhyn’ territory. Presence in Cucuteni-Trypillian community of flint-mining shafts, functioning of which required special skills and hard labor, specialized flint-processing workshops, transportation of raw materials and products of cleavage to remote territories became a basis for defining in this community a collective occupation, associated with flint mining and processing. Consequently, questions connected with this occupation, taking into account its` versatility, complexity and scale should be among the basic ones in the complex study of trypillian economics.

Key words: Chalcolithic, Cucuteni-Trypillian community, flint, mineral wealth, extraction, distribution and processing of flint

Language: English

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UDK: 903.2(477)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 92-104

Changing techniques of flint knapping in Chalcolithic times as an indicator of changes in the economy

Radomskyi Ivan

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

It is known that at the end of the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic in population of some cultures in the southeast Europe starts using large flint blades instead of microblades, along with the usage of triangular bifacial arrowheads and spears instead of inserts as geometric microliths. The microlithic technology of Neo-Chalcolithic cultures is undergoing the final stage in the development of microlithic morphology. This was reflected in the unification of the types of microinventory, in the increase of the width of the blades, in the improvement of the technique of knapping and flat retouching. All this, gave impetus to the decline of microlithic technology.

In our view, the end of microlithic technology was associated not only with farming, but with a change in the entire economical system, where hunting is replaced by another type of economic activity. We consider this process on the example of a cultural community of Cucuteni-Trypillia. The change in the technological direction of the production of blades of the early and middle Trypillia was the consequence of a change in the entire system of farming – the development of agriculture, the decline of hunting and obviously an increase in the role of livestock. All these processes were interconnected. The change in managing the economy began to manifest itself at the end of the early Trypillia (stage A/III-Precucuteni III). And although the production of microliths required smaller proportions of semi-finished products, but the width of the blade-blanks began to increase. At the next stage (BI), due to various reasons (mainly due to the tension in the environment not only of Cucuteni-Trypillia communities, but also among the Balkan cultures in general), the process of transition from one technique to another accelerated and became barely noticeable (at least in the area of the Dniester River).

Key words: microlith, biface, Precucuteni, Cucuteni-Trypillia, flint knapping, Chalcolithic, Copper Age

Language: English

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UDK: 903.21(4-11)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 61-91

Lithic Assemblages of Early Agricultural Communities in Middle Dniester: comparative study

Shydlovskyi Pavlo

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Flint products are the most massive material on the sites of early-agricultural groups and demonstrate the traditional component, which is less responsive to external influences, as opposed to other categories of material culture. Tools are directly related to the provision of food production and therefore in the most vivid form demonstrate the cultural adaptation of the group to the requirements of the type of farming. In order to determine the degree of affinity between the two early-agricultural communities of Middle Dniester which are traditionally considered evolutionarily related, a comparative analysis of technical and typological features of the two lithic assemblages was conducted: Yosypivka I (LBK) and Bernashivka I (Precucuteni-Trypillia A). Both collections are quite representative and come from residential areas of settlements. Despite some similarity in their typological and statistical indexes, a detailed analysis reveals a significant difference between technological features, the nature of raw materials provision and microlithic set. Significant difference in technology between two settlements is a consequence of different economic orientation, different level of interaction of groups and different sources of both industries. In general, the lithic assemblage of Trypillia A does not reveal an evolutionary affinity with the assemblages of LBK, Boian and the classic Criş of Balkans. Largely, early Tripillian materials are closer to those of the late BDK and Criş of Moldova, which manifests in the use of local deposits of raw materials, using a regular blade as a blank for insets. However, the use of microburin technology for making microliths is a striking feature of Bernashivka, which distinguishes this settlement from among other early-agricultural sites. It is possible that such character of the Trypillian A industry indicates a certain isolation of groups in the conditions of migration. Features in flint processing may be explained by the fact that migrants often form a narrow group, which is not a carrier of a full set of characteristics of the “mother” culture.

Key words: Neolithic, Linear-band ceramic culture, Precucuteni-Trypillia A, lithic assemblage, tools, microliths

Language: English

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UDK: 903.21(282.247.314-197.4)”636”