VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 268-274
National and World Archaeology in the Schulte Tables
Beidyk О.О., Lazaruk І.А
¹ Department of Country Studies and Tourism, The Faculty of Geography, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the possibility of using Schulte tables (Walter Schulte (1910 - 1972) - German psychiatrist and psychotherapist, student of Berger. In 1962-1972 - Professor of Psychiatry in Tübingen, Germany) as one of psychological and pedagogical techniques in the study of historical, archaeological, historical and geographical sciences. Proposed a number of “resource-historical-archaeological reference signals” (example is given in the article). Analysis of a large number of historical and archaeological publications, many years of expeditionary experience in Ukraine and abroad allowed to pick out a number of artifacts, objects of archaeological excavations and discoveries, portraits of eminent archaeologists and historians. These reproductions qualify heterogeneity (diversity), value, contrast, parity. Usage of active methods and modern psychological and pedagogical technologies (including Schulte tables) in higher education is the key to the learning process in general. Thus, given the number of touch points and fragmented overlapping of subject-object entities in history, archeology, historical geography, was proposed a number of Schulte tables, adapted to these disciplines and proved their possible usage in archaeological and historical disciplines.

Key words: National Archaeology, World archaeology, Schulte tables, pedagogical techniques, education

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: 159.9.018:378:902

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 254-265
Evidences of Deer Cult of Northern Eurasia Prehistoric Hunters in the Landscape Context
Mykhailova N.R.¹
¹ Institute of Archaeology, National Acadtmy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

In Final Palaeolithic – Neolithic of Northern Eurasia archaeological evidences of Deer cult and description was connected with outstanding places of landscape — caves, cliffs, rocks, and water — islands, waterfalls etc. In Final Paleolithic witnesses of Deer cult most often found in caves. There are assemblages of dropped antlers in caves of Scotland, Northern Ural and images of deers in monumental and mobile art in caves of Franco-Cantabrian area. In the Postpaleolithic time, in the so-called “levantian” and “schematic” art of the Eastern part of Iberian Peninsula and Portugal, pictures of deers found on the vertical cave surface, in the shallow caves or open areas. In Mezolithic of Northern Eurasia, vision of deer/elk becomes dominant in mythical and ritual complex. On the vertical and horizontal surfaces reflected ceremonies of creation, totemic and cosmological mythical scenes. In Neolithic time in circumpolar area on the outstanding places of landscape, connected with deer hunting and natural cycles of ones, appear large assamblages of animal remains, indicating the rituals of deer/elk immolation. Sacrificial places, located under rock images, have a big importance Comparision of archaeological materials with ethnographical data allow to suggest that signs of Deer cult in Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic of Eurasia was connected with places of higher semantic significance.

Key words: Deer Cult, Northern Eurasia, prehistoric hunters, Final Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903.26:504.54](4/5)”637”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 251-253
The Natural Conditions of Human’s Habitation According to Studying of Buried Soils in the Bronze Age Mound
Matviishyna Zh.M., Kushnir A.S.¹
¹ Department of Paleogeography, Institute of Geography NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Based on paleopedological and archaeological information the natural conditions of human habitation in times of Yamna culture of the Bronze Age were reconstructed. Data of geoarchaeological method allowed to reveal the age of Holocene fossil soils and define the changes of their types.

Key words: Bronze Age, paleosoil, paleogeography, Yamna culture, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477.86)”637”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 232-250
Paleopedological Studies of Bukivna Cemetery
Matviishyna Zh.M.¹, Lysenko S.D.², Parhomenko O.G
¹ Department of Paleogeography, Institute of Geography NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
² Department of the Archaeology of Chalcolithic – Bronze Age, Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
³ Department of Geography, Taras Shevchenko Chernihiv National pedagogical University, Chernihiv

ABSTRACT

Burial mound cemetery in Bukivna is one of the basic sites of Komarov culture of the Tszciniec cultural circle. It locates on the high right bank of the Dniester River to the west and south from the village Bukivna, Tlymatsky district of Ivano-Frankivsk region. In the 30th years of the XIX century there were excavated 13 kurgans. The work was resumed in 2010-2013. In group №1 three kurgans were excavated and in group №2 one more was explored. Kurgan №1 from group №2 is the earliest among the studied. This mound might be dated by ending of the 3rd and beginning of the 2nd millennium BC for its ceramic complex and arrowhead. It is also synchronized with the group of post-catacomb cultures. Kurgans of group №1 for ceramic complex and non-ferrous metal products can be attributed to the early stage of Komarov culture and dated within the second quarter of the 2nd millennium BC. All kurgans are erected over the slight natural height that visually increases their size. The main part of the kurgans is composed of chunks of sod from the surface of the ancient soil. Rocked siltstone mass from subsoil blocks the top of this mound. Soils, on which the mounds were built, are identified as podzolic soils that develop under meadow vegetation in a warm-temperate climate with sufficient rainfall. In the Bronze Age, the natural areas in the Carpathian region were clearly shifted to the north, dominated by open spaces with lots beech and hornbeam forests.

Key words: Paleopedology, Bukivna Cemetery, Bronze Age, Komarov Culture, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477.86)”637”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 222-231
Ecological Base of Trzciniec Cultural Circle
Lysenko S.D.¹
¹ Department of the Archaeology of Chalcolithic – Bronze Age, Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

The Trzciniec cultural circle (TCC) is a group of related late Bronze Age archaeological cultures of Eastern Europe forest and forest-steppe zone. Covers an area of the basin of the Oder on the west to the basin of Dеsna on the east, from the Baltic States on the north, to the border of right-bank forest-steppe and steppe on the south. The area of TCC is divided on the Western (Baltic Sea basin) and Eastern (Black Sea basin) assemblages. To the west, assemblage concerns the Tszciniec culture, to the east concerns Komarov and Sosnitsa cultures. According to the system, connection between culture and surrounding landscape the forest and forest-steppe lines of development of TCC differs. The first is related to the lowland landscapes (Wielkopolsko-Kujawska lowland, Masovia, the Baltic States, Ukrainian, Belarussian and Briansk Polesye), the second – to highlands (Prykarpattya, Volhyn, Podolsk, Dnieper sublimities). The Sosnitsa culture matches the forest line of development, and the Komarov – the forest-steppe line of the eastern assemblage of TCC. On the verge of the 3rd and the 2nd millenniums B.C., the researchers of paleoclimate of South Russian steppes mark the maximum of subboreal aridization, that in the second quarter – middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. has changed with the subboreal climatic optimum: moistening, reduction of continentality of the climate. The complex paleogeographical studies (paleopedological, landscape, geophysical, archeozoological, paleobotanical, palynological, dendrochronological) of the Bronze – Early Iron Age sights on territory of North Ukraine and Belarus give an opportunity to confront the oscillation of climate in the eastern assemblage of TCC and their consequences with the climatic scale based on results of studies in other regions of Eastern Europe.

Key words: Ecological base, Tszciniec cultural circle, Bronze Age, paleoclimatology, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](4-11)”637”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 206-221
Indicators of «Imports» in Trypillian Culture (on materials of «hoards» of flint blades)
Pichkur Ye.V
¹ Department “Archaeological Museum”, Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

The article considers the unique for Trypillian culture category of finds – complexes of flint artifacts, mostly blades, interpreted in literature as “hoards”. History of investigation, archaeological context and technical-typological characteristics of artifacts are discussed. In addition, a few variants of interpretation is proposed through the point of view of important role they played in Trypillian society.

Key words: Trypillian culture, flint blades, lithic technology, Chalcolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: Russian

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UDK: 903.21(477.4)’’636’’-032.5

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 194-205
Spatial Organization of the Stone Implements from Trypillian Settlement Ozheve-Ostriv
Radomsky I.S.¹
¹ Department of Archaeology and Museology, Historical Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Investigation of Trypilia culture lasts for over 100 years. Many Trypillia settlements have been opening during this time. However, settlements-giants (Trypillia B II – C I) are the most studied by area and the number of objects. For results of detailed investigations it is determined the planning of settlements, оrientation structures, interiors of buildings etc. For spatial organization of ceramic materials in buildings Tomaszewkа local group, V.O. Shumova determined that some categories of dishes were stationary and they in certain degree could be attributed to the elements of interiors. Researchers often refer to spatial organization method. Nevertheless, spatial organization of stone materials concerning the “platforms” is rare (exception: E.V. Pichkur and P.S. Shydlovskyi by materials Pekari II). This is primarily due to the fact that flint materials on the settlements-giants are rather the exception than the typical categories of implements. However, this thesis does not apply to the early period of the existence of the culture. Spatial organization experience of stone materials was obtained during the research of the settlement Druce (Trypillia B I). During the excavations all stone tools were fixed in details with leveling. In this way A.V. Engovatova has determined in which part of the building there were production and household operations. Also according to the direction and location of arrowheads, the authors of investigations have shown that the settlement was attacked. The Ozheve-Ostriv settlement dates back to the late phase В І. At this time increased a number of the fortified settlements and weapons on many sites. The author aims to determine how the stone products were correlated in space. And also whether identical the use of internal space buildings on the settlement. The results are compared with the above noted settlement Druce.

Key words: Trypillian culture, settlement of Ozheve-Ostriv, spatial analysis, Chalcolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: 903.2(477.85)”636”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 180-193
Between the Sea and the Mountains. The strategy of economic activity of the Crimea Mountain population in Chalcolithіс
Telizhenko S.A.¹, Yanish Ye.Yu.²
¹ Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Lutsk
² I. Shmalgauzen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

In the Copper Age, at the territory of the Crimean Mountains, were two local and cultural related groups of sites – coastal and open, and secure (shelters and caves) types. Under natural conditions, the specified group developed their strategy of economic activity. The population of the first group was oriented towards animal husbandry, agriculture, and exploitation of marine resources. Also, at least one site (Laspi-I) was one of the specialized centers for the production of beads from organic materials (shells and shellfish valves, bones). The population of the second group engaged in cattle breeding and hunting. Considering the location of this group of sites within the river valleys – Kacha, Chorna, and Zuya, it is possible that people could engage in agriculture. The similarity of some elements of the material culture of the Copper Age sites of Crimean Mountains to the Late Neolithic settlements in the West Caucasus (Anaseuli-II) suggests the possibility of cultural contacts between the two regions.

Key words: prehistoric archaeology, paleoeconomy, Crimea Mountain, Chalcolithic, Copper Age

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477.75)”636”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 171-179
The Natural Environment and Cultural Adaptation of the Prehistoric Population of Dnieper Nadporizhzhya in the Late Mesolithic – Early Neolithic
Demchenko О.V.¹
¹ Department of archeology and ethnology of Ukraine, Faculty of History, I.Mechnikov Odessa National University, Odessa

ABSTRACT

“Dnieper Nadporizhzhia” (Dnieper Rapids Region) is a specific region located between the Middle and Lower streams of the Dnieper, between the modern cities of Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhye. In terms of addressing the issue of the relationship between environment and human activity, this region is extremely promising. For this site during the late Mesolithic – Neolithic is characterized by a peculiar adaptive model of fishermen-hunters-gatherers, which was due to specific geographical conditions and resource potential of the region. Using paleoecology approach to the study of archaeological sites we will reconstruct the way of life, characteristics of living space and the specifics of human behavior in specific landscape and climatic conditions of the Dnieper Rapids Region. This approach makes it possible to explain the causal of the population adaptive strategy that preserves appropriating type of economy within the boundaries of a small ecological niche for a long period at relative sedentariness. The success of the adaptive strategy of the population was concluded in well-planned economic calendar, which corresponded to the opportunities resource base, the annual climatic fluctuations with respect to the natural fauna and flora biorhythms. All of this imposed places and principles of settlements formation (island, coastal, basic winter, summer, season, etc.), changing economic and domestic dominance over the year (fishery, gathering, and catching riverine game), instruments and domestic implements specialization, worldview formation, etc.

Key words: Prehistoric Archaeology, Early Neolithic, Late Mesolithic, Dnieper Nadporizhzhia, cultural adaptation

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477.63\64)”632”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 152-170
The Development of Neolithic Cultures on the Territory of Ukraine: overcoming determination of a certain type of landscape
Manko V.O.¹
¹ Department of the Crimean Archaeology, Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

The analysis of the Mesolithic archaeological cultures shows us the tough correlation between a specific type of material culture and landscape. Thrre are archaeological cultures that are rigidly tied to the Mountain Crimea (Murzakkobien, Shpankobien), that are connected with steppe landscape (Zymivnykien) and forest zone (Pisochnorivian). The use of different kinds of landskapes has contributed, on the one hand, maximum adaptation of carriers of archaeological cultures to the environment, and the other – creating a closed society that demonstrated a complete lack of contact with neighbors who hold other landscape niches. Even within a single environment landscape contacts between different groups are absent. For example, carriers of Postswiderian and Postarengsburgian often occupied a same territory. Thus, there are no traces of enrichment industries. The landscape shaped not only the kind of economic system, but the original system of relationship to the world, when just being neighbors is not taken into account. Neolithic – the era of revolution, not only and not so much in the way of obtaining resources as in human relations. In the Neolithic creation of huge “cultural and historical region” (CHR) takes place, within which innovative technologies spread. This process made people, who previously just did not notice each other to interact. CHR establishment became the cause of large-scale migrations, during which certain groups preprogrammed on the use of certain types of landscapes, started distant migrations, which led to a radical change in migrants’ lifestyle. The decreasing of landscape role in providing of new economic strategies and consciousness revolution correlate, one does not exist without the other. Distribution of Neolithic lifestyle in Ukraine due to migration of peoples and diffusion of Kukrek-type, Grebenikitype and Tash-Ayir-type traditions. The migration of Kukrek-type population began long before they started their own development of reproduction type economy. If in the middle of Preboreal Kukrekian known only in the foothills of the Crimea, in early Boreal we see advancements of Kukrek population on a frontier of steppe and forest-steppe zones (Dobrianka 1, 2, 3). In Atlantykum the promotion of Kukrek-type population to the forest-steppe (Donetsk culture at Seversky Donets) takes place, and then to the forest zone (Lazarivka, Krushnyky and others). So Kukrek population at the beginning of VI millennium BC mastered all types of landscapes of Ukraine, became the basis for the formation of the DnieperDonets cultural historical region. Grebenyki-type population (carriers of Grebenyki and Matviiv Kurgan Cultures) appearing in the steppe zone in Early Atlantykum, remained for some time in its niche in steppe landscape. However, in the second quarter of VII millennium BC promotion of Matviiv Kurgan population to the forest-steppe takes place (Tuba 5), in the end of VII - beginning of VI millennium BC process of moving people to the north became global. By this time the early Bug-Dniester sites and Starobelsk-type complexes in eastern Ukraine appeared. By the end of VI millennium BC Grebenyki-type population reaches the boundary of the forest and steppe zones (Romankiv 1). Tash-Ayir culture originating from the mountain area of Crimea. But in the early VI millennium BC we observe a splash of Tash-Ayir-type population in the steppe zone, which led to the appearance of Azov-Dnieper Culture. In quarters 2-3 VI millennium BC we see the migration of Azov-Dnieper population to the Southern Bug (Gard). At the end of VI millennium BC we see Tash-Ayir-type population on the frontier of the forest zone (Nikolskay Slobidka). Thus, the development of Ukrainian Neolithic associated with overcoming the landscape limitations by certain carriers of archaeological cultures. The process of overcoming such limitations programmed the appearance of CHR in Eastern Europe, in which Neolithic lifestyle developed.

Key words: Neolithic culture, Neolithic, Landscape Archaeology, Mesolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477)”632”

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