VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 61-91

Lithic Assemblages of Early Agricultural Communities in Middle Dniester: comparative study

Shydlovskyi Pavlo

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Flint products are the most massive material on the sites of early-agricultural groups and demonstrate the traditional component, which is less responsive to external influences, as opposed to other categories of material culture. Tools are directly related to the provision of food production and therefore in the most vivid form demonstrate the cultural adaptation of the group to the requirements of the type of farming. In order to determine the degree of affinity between the two early-agricultural communities of Middle Dniester which are traditionally considered evolutionarily related, a comparative analysis of technical and typological features of the two lithic assemblages was conducted: Yosypivka I (LBK) and Bernashivka I (Precucuteni-Trypillia A). Both collections are quite representative and come from residential areas of settlements. Despite some similarity in their typological and statistical indexes, a detailed analysis reveals a significant difference between technological features, the nature of raw materials provision and microlithic set. Significant difference in technology between two settlements is a consequence of different economic orientation, different level of interaction of groups and different sources of both industries. In general, the lithic assemblage of Trypillia A does not reveal an evolutionary affinity with the assemblages of LBK, Boian and the classic Criş of Balkans. Largely, early Tripillian materials are closer to those of the late BDK and Criş of Moldova, which manifests in the use of local deposits of raw materials, using a regular blade as a blank for insets. However, the use of microburin technology for making microliths is a striking feature of Bernashivka, which distinguishes this settlement from among other early-agricultural sites. It is possible that such character of the Trypillian A industry indicates a certain isolation of groups in the conditions of migration. Features in flint processing may be explained by the fact that migrants often form a narrow group, which is not a carrier of a full set of characteristics of the “mother” culture.

Key words: Neolithic, Linear-band ceramic culture, Precucuteni-Trypillia A, lithic assemblage, tools, microliths

Language: English

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UDK: 903.21(282.247.314-197.4)”636”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 48-60

The Formation of Wetland Identities in the Neolithic Balkans

Naumov Goce

Centre for Prehistoric Research, Republic of Macedonia

ABSTRACT

The so-called ‘Neolithic Package’ in the Balkans did not introduce only economic advantages and novelties, but also had a significant social impact onto the communities that inhabited this region. The interaction between indigenous population and migrants in the Early Neolithic initiated new notion of identity established on trade, exchange, labor, ideology and on the production of material culture. Consequently, the first farming communities were socially modified and many new were created as the agriculture, domestication, clay objects, human representations and intramural burials progressed in various areas of the Balkans. Thus the identity was subsequently incorporated in various aspects of Neolithic life, and in the archaeologically was mainly observed through material culture i.e. architecture, decorated pottery, house models, stamps and human representations in particular. However, beside these distinct signposts of identity, there were not many studies focused on landscape and spatial patterns as other means of identification between societies and environment. Nevertheless, the recent research indicates that there was preference of particular geographical setting that contributed in the formation of identities that were simultaneously transmitted onto the settlement features and material culture.

It is evident that particular Early Neolithic societies dispersed in different wetland regions of the Balkans were establishing tells, built houses with specific structures, produced pottery with distinct patterns and modeled anthropomorphic and house representations. Such societies apparently maintained economic networks with other communities and especially were intensified with those inhabiting wetlands and lakesides. They deliberately accented its discrete identity throughout painted vessels, house models, stamps and figurines and some of them bear evident reminiscences of Neolithic visual culture from the wetland communities in Anatolia. Therefore, this paper will mainly consider the formation of wetland identities in the Neolithic Balkans and will discuss its complex character within the networking that regarded merely particular spheres of the societies. These wetland communities interacted in the domain of economy and exchange of goods, but the major social and symbolic distinctiveness was reflected onto architecture and material culture. In this context the painted pottery, house models, figurines and stamps from the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania will be mainly concerned as it gives a broad overview of units and clusters of societies, which shared similar identities sometimes associated with those established in Turkey and Anatolia in particular.

Key words: Neolithic, tell, wetland archaeology, Neolithization, Balkans

Language: English

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UDK: 903’13(4-191.2)”634”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 43-47

A sign of mobility and cultural exchange? The ceramics with scribble line ornamentation from Lysa Hora cemetery

Martha Andriiovvych

Universitat Bern, Institut fur Archaolgische Wissenschaften

ABSTRACT

From four types of the Neolithic ceramics that were determined for the Dnieper-Donetsk culture region, only the fourth type after D.Y. Telegin typology has been found in the Lysa Gora cemetery. This type is represented by biconical vessels with the flat bottom and straight «collar» rim. Inside of this type, we are able to identify subtypes by their size, type and ornament disposition on the body of a vessel.

The vessels with the flat bottom, straight vertical walls and cut to the middle rim are most common. In the second period biconical vessels with the big flat “collar”rim became more popular. The plot of the composition and ornaments that decorated the body of the vessel in the first and second period also was changed. The ornament in the first period is the imprints of the comb punches forming the horizontal rows, the fir-tree, the zigzag, the ribbons, limited by the scratched lines, the comb marks. The ornament in the first period is the imprints of the comb punches forming the horizontal rows, the fir-tree, the zigzag, the ribbons, limited by the scratched lines, the comb marks. In the second period – the ornament of the triangular stroked decoration and the shaded horizontal lines, which form plots: geometric compositions, fir trees, nets, extends. A linear ornament consists of cut, screwed or flattened lines. Often, it is a straight line, in some cases there are curvilinear compositions, sometimes wavy ornament. In different periods of culture, there are certain differences in the motifs of patterns, the ways of their placement, the degree of coverage of the ornament of the surface of vessels. In the first period of culture, the pattern on vessels did not adhere to a clear horizontal zonation. Pots of the second period are ornamented from the rim to bottom. Sometimes the pattern enters the inside of the neck and rim of the vessel, as well as the bottom. The style of geometric rectilinear ornament prevails, which most often includes horizontal rows and stripes. Rows consist of impressions of the comb, the triangular short stroked decoration. Impressions of the comb, the triangular short stroked decoration in individual rows have a slope to the right or to the left, resulting in a pattern having a kind of fir tree.Less often, the ornamental field consisted of several horizontal stripes, separated by the triangular stroked decoration of the necks or flattened lines. The entire strip is covered with lines from the stroked decoration or impressions of the comb. Sometimes the entire strip filled with “broken” rows, which in general creates a motive of short vertical columns. However, curvilinear pattern of ornament did not common for this period. The feature of ceramics is its ornamented bottom. Patterns consist of concentric circles, elongated-oval circles, radial lines. At the end of the second – at the beginning of the third period of the Dnieper-Donetsk culture region a tendency is to create a pattern with a predominance of vertical or oblique columns and stripes, more often there is a pattern of ornament in the form of individual figures (triangles, lozenges, which sparsely cover the surface of the vessel).

The development and change of the disposition of ornament on ceramics is one of the keys to understand socio-cultural connections on the territory of the Dnieper-Donetsk cultural region.

Key words: Neolithic cemetery, pottery, Middle Dnieper, migration process, cultural exchange

Language: English

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UDK: 903.23(477.6)”634”

VITA ANTIQUA,     ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 38-42

An overview of the osteological mammal material from the archaeological sites of the Surska culture in the context of its tribes’ adaptation to the environment

Veiber Alina

National Museum of Natural history at the NASU

ABSTRACT

The concentration of archaeological sites in the Middle Dnieper area indicates that that region used to be attractive for settlement at different times. In particular, favorable conditions of the Dnieper River with its tributaries and forests in the coastal part, contributed to development of settlements of communities, where seizure played the leading role in the economy.

The paper considers the osteologic mammal material belonging to the Sursk Culture, which existed from the beginning of V - IV to III millennium BC. It occupied territories of the Dnieper Rapids, the modern territories of Dnieper and Zaporizhzha regions. The osteological mammal material was selected and described on sites of Vovnigi (1929-1931), Sursk Islands (1946) and Shulayev Island (1931). These sites were located in the territory of modern Dnieper and Zaporizhzha regions. They represent the seasonal settlements of the prehistoric population. Today, chronological limits of the Sursk Culture have been clarified and supplemented, so the middle stage of the Culture development accounts for 6150 – 5650 BC and the later stage for 5650 – 5200 BC.

The species composition in all sites represented of mostly wild animals, which lives in the wooden territory around the Dnieper banks. The selection contains a large number of fish, bird and fresh-water turtle bones. They were an auxiliary element of hunting. Large hoofed animals were essential to survival of communities, namely bison or bos primigenius, deer, horse, and roe deer, which inhabited the coastal forest areas. Location of settlements on the island territories allowed communities to use in full the natural resources. Hunting was the basis of survival of the Surska communities. The role of bone as a material for making tools significantly increased in that period. This may be explained by remoteness of silicon deposits and availability of bone material. Revised materials from selected sites clearly show how the economic strategy of communities of the Surska Culture form a model of adaptation to the natural environment.

Key words: archaeozoology, Neolithic, bone tools, Surska culture, mammal assemblage

Language: English

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UDK: 903.2(477.6)”634”

VITA ANTIQUA, ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 25-37

The Køkkenmødding of Eastern Ukraine

Telizhenko Sergii

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

Køkkenmødding, or kitchen/shell middens, are archaeological sites, are characterized by the presence of waste in the form of heaps of shells mixed with animal bones, ceramics, flints etc. Although historically the term kokkenmodding, which was used first by Danish biologist J. Japetus Steenstrup, is associated with the Ertebolle culture (dating to the end of the Mesolithic), over the time, it has become more extensive. In this paper, this term is used to denote heaps of marine or freshwater mollusks that were formed as a result of human activity. Shell middens are widespread, mostly in coastal zones around the world – from Japan to Canada, and from Australia to Denmark. The paper is devoted to the concise analysis of sites with shell middens of the Eastern part of Ukraine, whose existence is fixed within the frames of the final Mesolithic-Neolithic and Early Copper Age. There are three types of shell midden known from Ukraine – these include marine, freshwater (river or lake) and terrestrial shell examples. Shell middens composed of marine shells are known from the shore of the Crimean peninsula and dating from the Copper Age to the Middle Bronze Age (Ardych Burun, Laspi-1, Gurzuf Castle etc.). Examples of shell middens with terrestrial shells are situated in the mountainous parts of Crimea and are associated with the Mesolithic Murzak Koba culture and Tash Air culture of Neolithic. Published examples include Murzak Koba layer 3, Shan Koba layer 3, Fatma Koba layer 4, Kukrek layer 3, Laspi-7. In this paper, I have focused on the use of freshwater mollusks by the ancient inhabitants of the middle stream of the Siversky Donets river basin. It should be noted that these are amongst the most northerly sites of this type in Eastern Ukraine. In this way, while the køkkenmødding tradition existed in Eastern Ukraine for almost 1700 years, its origins may be found among cultures to the south and southeastern, including the Northeastern Azov Sea region and the Lower Don river, where the Razdorskaya-2, Rakushechnii yar, and Matveyev Kurhan sites are situated.

Key words: køkkenmødding, shell middens, Eastern Ukraine, final Mesolithic, Neolithic, Early Copper Age

Language: English

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UDK: 903.2(477.6)”634\636”

VITA ANTIQUA, ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 13-24

Chipped flint technologies of Janislawice culture in Ukrainian Polissya region

Stupak Dmytro

Institute of Archaeology of the NASU

ABSTRACT

Since the opening of the first site named DVS with the flint from Janislawice, more than 30 sites of Janislawice culture became known on the territory of Ukrainian Polissya. The most presentable among them are Nepyretc, Senchytcy 3, Senchytcy 5A, 5D, Rudnya, Rudnya 1A, DVS, Rudyj Ostriv, Protereb, Smolyanikove. Janislawice culture dates from the end of Mesolithic period. On most of the Janislawice sites are ceramic fragments from Neolithic time. These sites reflect the developing transition process of Janislawice culture to the Neolithic stage. This paper analyzes Chipped flint technologies of Janislawice culture in Ukrainian Polissya region. The first one is directed on the blades produsing. The second – is directed on the flakes produsing. The main types of Janislawice blades producing center are one platform cores with one working surface. For exploitation of these cores the pressure technique us being used. Cores of other types of blades produced are not numerous and generally derived from one platform cores with one working surface. Janislawicean obtained blades technology thanks to a good choice of raw material parts for cores and use of a pressure technique, which made the process of obtaining blades highly controlled, allowed to obtain standardized blades blanks with minimal expenses of raw material and time. Thanks to the use of pressure technique the process of making blades ran almost without mistakes. As a result, there was a deficit of flaky blanks. The technology of obtaining flakes was oriented to eliminate the deficit of flaky blanks. This high level of technological development is the availability of technology for specialized blades using pressure technique and technologies aimed at obtaining flakes using hummer is inherent in the most technologically developed late Mesolithic – early Neolithic cultural phenomenons.

Key words: Janislawice culture, Ukrainian Polissya region, Chipped flint technologies, core, pressure technique, blades producing, cores for flakes

Language: English

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UDK: 903.21(477.41/.42)”632”

VITA ANTIQUA, ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)

Center for Paleoethnological Research

VITA ANTIQUA 10, 2018, Prehistoric Networks in Southern and Eastern Europe, 6-12

FOREWORD: Network Approach for Studying the Prehistoric Networks

Shydlovskyi P., Morozova Ya.

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Faculty of History

ABSTRACT

This volume represents a part of the materials which were highlighted as the reports at the international scientific conference “Wetland Archaeology and Prehistoric Networks in Europe” that was held in Kyiv and Kaniv from the 15 to 18 September 2017. This conference was the final event of the Institutional Partnership Programme (SCOPES) “Network in Eastern European Neolithic and Wetland Archaeology for the improvement of field techniques and dating methods (NEENAWA)”, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). The current state of Ukrainian archaeology should be described as an integration stage, which is characterized by the representation of the achievements of national science in the world on the one hand and the adaptation of world experience for a more complete coverage of past phenomena on the other hand. In the context of the crisis of traditional scientific institutions and outdated approaches, modern research increasingly acquires a networked character, that manifests itself in the cooperation of specialists from different scientific fields and institutions when investigating a specific scientific problem. The consequence of these changes, which one can see in our country during the last several years, is a process of cultural integration of Ukraine into the European space, which is maintained by varied programs of scientific and cultural cooperation. For the modern Ukrainian humanitarian sphere, we have issues which are connected with the unification of methodology, modernization of approaches and the inclusion of the scientific achievements of our country into European scientific heritage. The Project “Network in Eastern European Neolithic and Wetland Archaeology for the Improvement of Field Methods and Dating Methods” is the first step towards establishing ground for cooperation on the study of the Neolithic in Eastern Europe. The name of our conference “Wetland Archaeology and Prehistoric Networks in Europe” is symbolic within the framework of this project.

Keywords: network approach, prehistoric archaeology, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, neolithization, Eastern Europe

Language: English / Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 268-274
National and World Archaeology in the Schulte Tables
Beidyk О.О., Lazaruk І.А
¹ Department of Country Studies and Tourism, The Faculty of Geography, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the possibility of using Schulte tables (Walter Schulte (1910 - 1972) - German psychiatrist and psychotherapist, student of Berger. In 1962-1972 - Professor of Psychiatry in Tübingen, Germany) as one of psychological and pedagogical techniques in the study of historical, archaeological, historical and geographical sciences. Proposed a number of “resource-historical-archaeological reference signals” (example is given in the article). Analysis of a large number of historical and archaeological publications, many years of expeditionary experience in Ukraine and abroad allowed to pick out a number of artifacts, objects of archaeological excavations and discoveries, portraits of eminent archaeologists and historians. These reproductions qualify heterogeneity (diversity), value, contrast, parity. Usage of active methods and modern psychological and pedagogical technologies (including Schulte tables) in higher education is the key to the learning process in general. Thus, given the number of touch points and fragmented overlapping of subject-object entities in history, archeology, historical geography, was proposed a number of Schulte tables, adapted to these disciplines and proved their possible usage in archaeological and historical disciplines.

Key words: National Archaeology, World archaeology, Schulte tables, pedagogical techniques, education

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: 159.9.018:378:902

DOI

VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 254-265
Evidences of Deer Cult of Northern Eurasia Prehistoric Hunters in the Landscape Context
Mykhailova N.R.¹
¹ Institute of Archaeology, National Acadtmy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

In Final Palaeolithic – Neolithic of Northern Eurasia archaeological evidences of Deer cult and description was connected with outstanding places of landscape — caves, cliffs, rocks, and water — islands, waterfalls etc. In Final Paleolithic witnesses of Deer cult most often found in caves. There are assemblages of dropped antlers in caves of Scotland, Northern Ural and images of deers in monumental and mobile art in caves of Franco-Cantabrian area. In the Postpaleolithic time, in the so-called “levantian” and “schematic” art of the Eastern part of Iberian Peninsula and Portugal, pictures of deers found on the vertical cave surface, in the shallow caves or open areas. In Mezolithic of Northern Eurasia, vision of deer/elk becomes dominant in mythical and ritual complex. On the vertical and horizontal surfaces reflected ceremonies of creation, totemic and cosmological mythical scenes. In Neolithic time in circumpolar area on the outstanding places of landscape, connected with deer hunting and natural cycles of ones, appear large assamblages of animal remains, indicating the rituals of deer/elk immolation. Sacrificial places, located under rock images, have a big importance Comparision of archaeological materials with ethnographical data allow to suggest that signs of Deer cult in Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic of Eurasia was connected with places of higher semantic significance.

Key words: Deer Cult, Northern Eurasia, prehistoric hunters, Final Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903.26:504.54](4/5)”637”

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 251-253
The Natural Conditions of Human’s Habitation According to Studying of Buried Soils in the Bronze Age Mound
Matviishyna Zh.M., Kushnir A.S.¹
¹ Department of Paleogeography, Institute of Geography NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Based on paleopedological and archaeological information the natural conditions of human habitation in times of Yamna culture of the Bronze Age were reconstructed. Data of geoarchaeological method allowed to reveal the age of Holocene fossil soils and define the changes of their types.

Key words: Bronze Age, paleosoil, paleogeography, Yamna culture, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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UDK: [903:504.54](477.86)”637”

DOI