VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 144-150
Final Upper Palaeolithic Assamblages from South Caucasus (Dzudzuana Cave)
Chkhatarashvili G.¹
¹ Department of Stone Age, Batumi Archaeological Museum; Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University, Batumi (Georgia)

ABSTRACT

In this paper we present Final upper Palaeolithic assemblages from South Caucasus (Dzudzuana Cave) . Dzudzuana cave site, in the Imereti region (Chiatura municipality), is situated on the right bank of the Nekrissi river, a tributary of the Kvirila river, which drains most of Wcstern Georgia. The cave is a large, elongated hall, emerging as a tunnel from which a small creek flows. The wide opening of the cave (22 meters) and high ceiling (ca. 15 m). Excavations in Dzdudzuana cave have been conducted in two campaigns. The first in 1966–1975, was directed by D. Tushabramishvili. There was discovered two layers: the Eneolithic and the Upper Palaeolithic deposits. A second campaign took place in 1996–2008 (head of expedition T. Meshveliani). The basic units of excavation were 50 mm thick quadrants of 0.5×0.5m, within a 1×1m grid. The excavated deposits were wet-sieved, dried and later handpicked in order to retrieve the smallest archaeological components (lithics, bones, etc.). Final upper Paleolithic period (B layer) in Dzudzuana cave dates back between 16.5-13.2 Ka cal BP. This layer comprises an assemblage characterised by the presence of microgravettes and backed and retouched bladelets. The local character of these assemblages is marked by the consistently high percentages of endscrapers, which always outnumber the burins, through all the archaeological occupations on site. There are elongated blades, c. 80 mm long, but most of the debitage comprises flakes, small blades, bladelets and debris. There are no obsidian cores and only c. 50 debitage artefacts. Dzudzuana cave rich in faunal remains too. As we can see, Bison (Bison priscus), aurochs (Bos primogenius) and Caucasian tur (Capra caucasica) are the most common taxa in all occupation levels. Other ungulate species are represented in small frequencies and include primarily red deer (Cervus elaphus). The palynological spectra (five samples) from Unit B demonstrate a major change from bottom to the top. The lower part is characterised by large amounts of rhododendron (Rhododendron caucasica) pollen and other highland elements that suggest the presence of an alpine belt in the vicinity of the cave. Although, during the course of pollen analysis (by palynologist E. Kvavadze) numerous non-pollen polymorphs were discovered. Among these were unique finds of wild flax fibres, including spun and dyed ones. Fibres were recovered from all archaeological layers, but in B layers which is interesting for us, it was 48.

Key words: Upper Palaeolithic, Final Palaeolithic, South Caucasus, Dzudzuana Cave, lithic assemblage

Language: English

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 139-143
Reconstruction of Paleoclimatic Life Conditions of Ancient Population at the Site near Kamyanka Village in the Kharkiv Region
Snizhko I.A.¹
¹- Ukrainian State University of Railway Transport, Kharkiv

ABSTRACT

An important part of complex research of Upper Palaeolithic sites is environment reconstruction of ancient population. For this purpose, a method of pollen analysis has been successfully and long while used. It allows creating a local stratigraphical scheme of sediments and reconstructing flora and climate of archaeological object. Upper Palaeolithic site near Kamyanka village in the Izum district of the Kharkiv region has been researched since 2005. Excavated area counts 146 square meters, the collection of flint artifacts contains more than 7500 items. Cultural level extends vertically, it is defined by the level of artifacts expansion, and it does not have any specific coloring. Apart from flint artifacts, it contains small fragments of sienna, coal and animal bones. Planigraphic structure shows assemblage that corresponds to working places of flint processing. The set of tools is specific to site workshops that are situated near flint raw material exposure. With the method of microstratigraphy, it has been defined that level of cultural remains bedding is associated with pale-yellowish loess loam, which belongs to Upper Back Sea subhorizon. For the purpose of conducting pollen analysis 8 samples have been taken, two of which come from cultural level. The composition of sporo-pollen spectrum of these samples shows that during the period of the site functioning the researched area lied in the steppe zone with subperiglacial climate, which was much colder and drier than that of nowadays. Vegetational cover was thinner, poorer and more unvaried in composition. An ancient human site is situated in a river valley in immediate surrounding of wooden and mixed gramineous herbs.

Key words: paleoclimatology, Upper Palaeolithic, Kamyanka village site, Prehistoric Archaeology, lithic assemblage

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 127-138
Landscape Changes in Kyiv Dnieper Region on the Border of Pleistocene – Holocene : archaeological evidence
Shydlovskyi P.S.¹, Lyzun O.M.¹
¹- Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

One of the most important issues in the study of ecological systems is to determine the nature of the changes that occurred during the transition from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene. Paleoecological research involves the study of interaction between the three types of environments - physical, biotic and social in different chronological epochs. Detection of continuity or discontinuity of transitional periods is possible with involving the analysis of data of several related disciplines - in this case and prehistory archaeology and paleogeography. Geological data claims the presence in the Late Pleistocene of strong watercourse of Pra-Dnieper, which was filled with water from the edge of Scandinavian glacier and fed from the northern tributaries, through Zamhlay valley (Chernihiv region), partially through Desna valley, through widely developed Trubizh valley and formed a wide floodplain south to Kaniv dislocations in the place of confluence of Ros and Rosava rivers and the mouth of Tiasmyn (Pazynych, 2004; 2012). Paleontological and arheozoological data claim that the territory of the Middle Dnieper Region belongs to mammoth zone, in which mammoth played the role of the main component in a complex of herbivorous mammals and was the basic hunting object of palaeolithic groups. Sites with a prevalence of mammoth’s remains in the cultural layer, including such basic camps with dwellings, built using bones of these animals, like Mezhyrich, Dobranychivka, Hintsi, Mizyn, located quite tightly in the defined region, except large areas formed by Trubizh, Dnieper and Desna valleys. The majority of these sites belong to Gravettian - 27-19 thousand years BP and Epigravettian – 18-12 thousand years BP culture traditions. Some sites are located almost on the perimeter of the defined area – on the native shore of Kiev plateau and high terraces of Desna, Trubizh and Supii. This may indicate unfitness for habitation in the land between the Dnieper and Trubizh rivers, in Late Pleistocene, or the destruction of sites of this region by natural factors. The upper limit of mammoth-hunters culture falls on the 13 thousand years BP and is associated primarily with the disappearance of the main object of hunting. The sharp decrease of the sites on the territory of Kyiv Dnieper Region in the Final Paleolithic is recorded with the presence of only three sites with characteristic low trapeze and federmesser-type points (Velykyi Dyvlyn E, Velyka Buhayivka and Zhurivka) traditionally dated in frames 12–11 thousand BP. The occupation of the territory between Dnieper and Trubizh rivers was on the bound of Preboreal and Boreal, proof of which are Mesolithic sites: Zahai (Zymivnyky culture, 10100-9300 B.P.) and Vyhurivschyna (Kudlaivka culture, 9500-8300  B.P.) that genetically associated with different geographical regions of Eastern Europe. This coincides with the formation of meanders and oxbow of Desna River of a modern type that occurred 9.8-9.5 thousand years BP. The spread of the sites in Mesolithic was possible only after the formation of the modern Dnieper River valley, formed by the breakthrough of Poliske Lake, which was located in the modern basin of Prypiat river at the end of the Pleistocene. According to L. Zalizniak, this breakthrough happened in Rauniss, approx. 13.5 thousand years BP (Zalizniak, 2009, 28). Changing in regime of the river drain due to the retreat of the Scandinavian glacier has led to changes in the nature of river’s meanders and release of large masses of alluvial sand, floodplain formations of which were suitable for the accommodation of Mesolithic-Neolithic population.

Key words: Landscape Archaeology, Middle Dnieper, Final Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 117-126
Adaptation of Prehistoric Hunters to Life in Periglacial Plains (case of study: Upper Paleolithic sites of Bakshala River valley)
Pistruil I.V
¹- Odesa Archaeological Museum of NAS Ukraine, Odesa

ABSTRACT

There existed three main life support factors for Stone Age communities – water, food and raw material (for tool manufacture). The micro-region of Bakshala river downstream (the right-side tributary of Southern Boug river) corresponded to all these requirements. The work of expedition, headed by F. Kozubovskiy in 1930 – 1932, revealed first sites attributed to Stone Age near the village of Anetovka (Bakshala river basin). Complex and stationary (year-by-year) investigations of this micro-region (i.e. vicinities of villages Anetovka and Shchutske) were undertaken later on and were headed by V.N. Stanko in 1978 – 2007 and I.V. Pistruil since 2008. The “key-site” of this micro-region is Anetovka 2, which vicinities “contain” over 25 other localities, attributed to Upper Palaeolithic period – including surface collections of material and stationary excavated sites (Anetovka 1, Anetovka 13, Anetovka 22). Such archaeological concentration of Upper Palaeolithic sites within this micro-region was caused by rich flint sources, that were utilized independently and equally by ancient representatives of both technological traditions – Epi-Aurignacian and Epi-Gravettian.

Key words: prehistoric hunters, Upper Palaeolithic, cultural adaptation, Bakshala River valley, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 107-116
Cultural Adaptations of Upper Palаeolithic Hunters of North Azov - Black Sea Steppes
Krotova O.O
¹-Department of Archaeology of Stone Age, Institute of Archaeology NAS Ukraine, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

Past human cultural adaptations is determined by subsistence practices and life-style (types of mobility) of hunter groups, type of sites and flexible social relationships that had certain distinctions on the different chronologic stages depending on environmental conditions and the features of resources. The hunters early (36000-26000 BP) and, partly, middle (23000-20000 BP) the chronologic stages, that was answered by cool and, sometimes, humid enough environments with steppe and, partly, forest-steppe vegetation mostly unspecialized hunting practiced on large herbivores of different species - bison, horse and episodically - mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, reindeer, red and giant deer. In life-style resident mobility prevailed with the frequent change of place of stay of base camp, the habitants of that was separate small community. Last one third of the middle chronologic stage (20000-17000 BP) corresponded with the cold maximum of the late Valdai epoch with a predominant cold and dry climate and open landscapes with steppe vegetation. Paleontologists consider that this period was marked by a high density of large herbivores, first of all, bison. The adaptation of hunter groups in this period are determined as specialized bison hunting practices, predominance of a logistical mobility in life-style with big site complexes, and a relatively stable social relationships. The late chronologic stage (17000-10000 BP) coincides with the late glacial epoch with extreme fluctuating climatic condition that created stress situations in the environmental conditions, which resulted in considerable changes in composition a fauna, reduction of sizes of large herbivores and their density. During this stage the hunters mostly unspecialized hunting practiced on different species of herbivores. The residential mobility in lifestyle and a relatively poor development of social relationships may be, predominated.

Key words: Upper Palaeolithic, North Azov – Black Sea steppes, cultural adaptation, Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 81-106
From Mammoth to Fox: functional identification of Eliseevichi 1 within Upper Pleniglacial settlements of the the Desna valley
Demay L.¹, Patou-Mathis M.¹, Péan S.¹, Khlopachev G.A.², Sablin M.V³
¹- Department of Prehistory, National Museum of Natural History, Paris (France)
²-Department of Archaeology, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Saint-Petersburg (Russia)
³-Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, SaintPetersburg (Russia)

ABSTRACT

This study examines the faunal record in the Desna valley (Ukraine and Russia) during the end of the second part of the Upper Pleniglacial (20 000 – 14 000 BP). We have made the zooarchaeological study of the faunal remains of Eliseevichi 1 - 1935-36. The faunal spectrum is relatively restricted, typical of a cold and dry environment with the presence of Mammuthus primigenius, Rangifer tarandus, Canis lupus, Alopex lagopus rossicus and Ursus arctos. As expected, we highlighted an important exploitation of mammoth related to ivory industry. However, we also brought to light an intense exploitation of canid resources related to osseous industry and furskin activities. The interpretation of the site as base camp is questionable. We compared the zooarchaeological data obtained from Eliseevichi 1 faunal remains with other Upper Pleniglacial archaeological sites in the Desna valley. Our aim is to better understand the paleoecology of the Desna valley by the analysing of wildlife spectra and the human exploitation of fauna during the Upper Pleniglacial. Furthermore, we can highlight the degree of specialization of human groups to exploit species, notably mammoth (meat, bones, ivory) and carnivores (fur, bones). These comparisons were made taking into account the preservation of the sites and the different types of occupations by human groups, to discuss on types of activities and storage of animal resources, in the Desna valley.

Key words: Mammoth, Eliseevichi 1 site, Desna valley, Prehistoric Archaeology, Upper Palaeolithic, Eastern Europe

Language: English

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 69-80
Stages of research of Mezhyrich site
Dudnyk D.V.¹
¹- Department of Archaeology and Museology, Historical Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

The article deals with the actual problems of research stages of the Mezhyrich Upper Palaeolithic site. There are four stages of research. The first stage is an exploration of I. Pidoplichko (1966-1974), the second is research made by M. Gladkykh (1976-1989), N. Korniets (1989-2002) is the third and the research of D. Nuzhnyi, S. Péan and P. Shydlovskyi is the fourth stage (since 2003). All of these stages have the different specific of research, advantages and disadvantages. The first excavation of the Mezhyrich site occurred half a century ago, in 1966. During this period, researchers focused on dwellings mainly. It gave good opportunity to explore the Palaeolithic architecture. However, consequently, area around dwellings had remained unexplored until 1970th. I. Pidoplichko didn`t leave scientific reports. M.  Gladkykh has explored the fourth dwelling and household complexes around all dwellings of the site, architecture of the fourth dwelling and lithic industry. He left many reports, but they still not published. N. Korniets worked on the site according to the archeological methodology. She left reports of excavation. In addition, were used new research methods that gave an opportunity for better material fixing. The research has also focused on biological aspects. Nowadays scientists continue researching the site. Every year more and more specialists are interested in researching and publishing the results of excavations. The Mezhyrich site attracts scientists and students from Ukraine and abroad such as the USA, France, Switzerland etc. Modern stage has many publications made by D. Nuzhnyi, P. Shydlovskyi, S. Pean etc. Excavations conducted by Ukrainian scientists such as I.  Pidoplichko, M.  Gladkyh, N.  Korniets, D.  Nuzhnyi, P. Shydlovskyi with participation of foreign colleagues from the USA, Russia, France and Belgium. Joint expedition with researches of various scientific directions allows to apply research methods, which improve the expansion of knowledge about the site, its flora and fauna, lithic industry of mammoth hunters, historical and architectural reconstruction. The results of research gave a possibility to describe the climatic conditions of the Late Pleistocene 15 000 years ago. Special exploration helped to determine the absolute dating of the site, set the type of settlement, explore the technique of making tools and define it as the epigravettian. The problem of conservation of the fourth dwelling is still relevant.

Key words: Upper Palaeolithic, mammoth hunters, Epigravettian, Mezhyrich site, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 61-68
Magnetic Measurements on Palaeolithic Sites at Velykyj Sholes Ridge in Transcarpathia
Bondar K.M.¹, Ryzhov S.M.², Tymofeieva Zh.B³
¹-  SEI “Institute of Geology”, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
²-  Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
³- DGP “Ukrgeophisics”, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

In 2015 we performed magnetic surveys and laboratory measurements of low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf) and the frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (Kfd) in soil samples from excavation on the sites Maly Rakovets IV and Velykyj Sholes. The geomagnetic field within the area 19x19 m, at the western wall of the 2006 yr excavation on multilayered Paleolithic site Maly Rakovets IV varies in the range 49100-49650 nT. The small linear dimensions of the local magnetic anomalies (4-8 m), their irregular shape and high gradients of the edges suggest underground heterogeneities to the depth of 5 m to be the sources of anomalies. χlf of soil in the pits №19 in H-5 excavated square, which has a depth of 5.5 m and opens loess and tuff layers, varies in between 50 ... 1148 * 10-8 m3/kg. Maximum values are observed at the depth intervals 3,2-3,6m and 4,1-4,6 m. Kfd makes 10-14% in the surface layer to a depth of 0.5 m (Holocene and Vitachyv horizons according to Matviyishyna et al., 2013), in the interval 1,0-1,15 m (Priluky horizon) and 1,7-1,85 m (Zavadivka horizon) indicating the dominance of small superparamagnetic grains in the magnetic fraction that have accumulated due to pedogenesis. Lower layers of the section show low Kfd =1,3-7,9%, demonstrating the dominance of multidomain grains of primary magnetic minerals. The absolute values of the geomagnetic field induction on a plot of 138 m2 surveyed on Paleolithic location Velykyj Sholes are 48650-49550 nT. The area of positive magnetic anomaly coincides with the boundaries of the local outcrop of stone material composed of volcanic glass (mostly rhyolite) and quartzite and sandstone pebbles. The linear zone of high gradient magnetic field within the excavation corresponds to border of archaeological finds distribution. χlf gradually increases down to excavation wall profile from 32*10-8 m3/kg at the surface to 94*10-8 m3/kg at the depth of 0.3 m, on the tuff rock weathering crust. Magnetic measurements on Paleolithic sites at Velykyj Sholes ridge in Transcarpathia is an important source of information on planigraphy and stratigraphy of the monuments.

Key words: Magnetic measurements, Palaeolithic sites,Velykyj Sholes ridge, Prehistoric Archaeology

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 46-60
Paleogeoraphic Situation of Pleistocene and Living Conditions of Ancient Man in Areas of the Velykyj Sholes Ridge
Matviishyna Zh.M.¹, Karmazinenko S.P.¹, Ryzhov S.M.².
¹-  Department of Paleogeography, Institute of Geography NAS Ukraine, Kyiv
² Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of History, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv

ABSTRACT

The article is devoted to the reconstruction of paleogeographic environments and living conditions of ancient man in the area of the Velykyj Sholes ridge. In the basis of this reconstruction, the study of Pleistocene soils and sediments of the Paleolithic multilayer site of Malyj Rakovets  IV in Transcarpathia are taken. In the introduction defines Paleogeography as a science and its main tasks and structural units. Noted the importance and potential of joint integrated paleogeographic and archeological studies of Paleolithic sites. Special attention was focused on the study of anthropogenic deposits since discoveries of ancient man were found there. We present summarized results of the paleopedological studies (including micromorphological analysis) of soils and loess deposits in six pits. In those pits we were able to identify the following stratigraphic horizons: Martonosha (mr), Lubny (lb), Zavadivka (zv), Dnieper (dn), Kaydaky (kd), Tyasmyn (ts), Pryluky (pl), Uday (ud), Vytachiv (vt), Bug (bg) and Holocene (hl). The most artifacts from volcanic materials (mainly obsidian) were confined to the sediments of the Zavadivka, Kaydaky, Pryluky, Vytachiv and Holocene horizons. As a result of this work the favorable climatic conditions, availability of raw materials and stone artifacts indicate that ancient man lived in the area of the Great Sholes ridge during the Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.

Key words: Paleogeoraphic, Pleistocene, Velykyj Sholes ridge,Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe

Language: Ukrainian

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VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)

VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 38-43
Geographical Approach in Prehistoric Archaeology at the turn of the 20th – 21st Centuries
Smyntyna O.V.¹
¹- Department of Archaeology and Ethnology of Ukraine, Faculty of History of Odesa National I.I. Mechnikov University, Odesa

ABSTRACT

Attention to spatial and geographic frameworks of paleohistorical reconstructions became one of the most significant trends of European science at the last third of the 20th century. This time is marked by the origin of series of archaeological branches, and the most widespread among which are landscape archaeology, geoarchaeology, and environmental archaeology. In frames of each of them developing the unique set of concept, research methods and theoretical backgrounds for interpretation of human-environment relationships basing on the archaeological excavations data. Most broadly shared at that time are adaptation theory and connected with it concept of environmental stress and natural and ecological challenges theory. Accumulated fundamental empirical database and series of successful case studies allowed revision of methodological base for the conceptualization of nature and society interaction. Recent emphasis in this context is connected with the application of theories of sustainable development and environmental resilience, as well as niche construction theory. Moreover, during the past years, can be observed an actualization of concepts connected with the conceptualization of spatial frames of nature and society interaction and modelling of feedforwards and feedbacks in the ‘nature – ancient population’ system on the level of Anthropocene – geographic zone – landscape – microregion – niche – particular settlement.

Key words: Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe, Geographical approach

Language: Ukrainian

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