VITA ANTIQUA, №1. 1999

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Fundamental changes in public life in Ukraine violated the traditional system of organisation and financing of scientific studies. There was a necessity to create new structures that could partially fill this gap. For this purpose, with the initiative of the Faculty of History of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and the employees of the Institute of Archaeology of NAS of Ukraine and public organisations in November 1997 was established public association “Society of Archaeology and Anthropology”.

The publication of this issue became one of the first actions of Society. The collection of authors has mainly formed of researchers who have enough experience of working in science and many scientific publications. The issue also contains studies of young scientists who just have started their scientific path.

“The Society of Archaeology and Anthropology” considers making the issue «Vita Antiqua» periodical. We do not plan to restrict topics of an issue. Any question on archaeology and anthropology may be published in the following issues of Society.

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01. Ryzhov, S. SOME ASPECTS OF LITHIC PROCESSING ON MALYI RAKOVETS IV MOUSTERIAN SITE IN TRANSCARPATHIA, 3-16.

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The article provides the technical-typological analysis of stone tools and departures of stone production of the mousterian complex of Malyj Rakovets IV.

The reconstruction of paleoproduction involves a detailed technological flakes analysis. The researching process was divided at three stages: 1. the flakes are divided into «real» and «doubtful»; 2. the technical- morphological description of «real» flakes; 3. reconstruction of stage editing sequences on the basis of technological analysis of flakes and technical-typological descriptions of the core.

02. Stepanchuk, V. MIDDLE PALAEOLITHIC OF CRIMEA. INDUSTRIAL TRADITIONS OF WURM TIME: THE VARIETY OF MANIFESTATIONS, POSSIBLE CAUSES OF VARIABILITY, 17-28.

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Four post-Eemian МР industrial traditions can be distinguished in the Crimea, namely: Akkaian, Kiik- Kobian, Staroselian, and Kabazian. The first of them can be defined as Micoquian, the next two as para-Micoquian, and the latter as typical Mousterian. The Crimean Micoquian is not an adequate analogy of Central European one. There are rather numerous differences, and shortly speaking, they can be explained in terms of more advanced Charentian elements in the typology of Eastern assemblages. At the same time there is essential set of typological and technological indices which enable us to define Akkaian group of sites as a local province of Micoquian, similar to provinces distinguished by V.Toepfer and D.Mania (1973). Kiik-Kobian can be regarded as para-Micoquian, or influenced by Micoquian industrial tradition. Such original techno-typological variation, most likely, has appeared as a product of the evolution within a contact zone between Micoquian and Charentian. As para-Micoquian can also be regarded as the assemblages of Staroselian that is, as it seems, a product of syncretic evolution involving elements of different paleotraditions, as well. Kabazian practically shows no signs of direct or indirect influence of Micoquian technocomplex. This industrial tradition was rooted in Balkanian MP, as it was already emphasised (Kolosov 1972). Thus, the Crimean MP of Eemian age which survived until comparatively late date (ca.30 Kyr BP) belongs, undoubtedly, to the sphere of ideas and logic of development of European Palaeolithic. Direct and indirect influences can be traced by a number of Central and South-East European traditions, namely: Micoquian, Charentian, Levallois-Mousterian. The Crimean peninsula was embraced by frameworks of original contact zone where numerous different original and syncretic traditions were appeared and existed.

The differentiation of four distinct industrial traditions localized within geographically limited area and, additionally, coexisted (at least during the latest stages of their evolution) provoking the doubt in reliability of this subdivision. That is why we need to evaluate the distinguished industrial traditions according to available models which explain variability of the Middle Palaeolithic. More detailed examination needs in further elaboration, but, nevertheless, proposed brief review of informative indices demonstrates more high explanation potential of two models, namely “paleoethnological” and “occupation intensity”. It can not be excluded, that this preference is appeared due to scarcity of data related to alternate models. At the same time an idea of a single explanation model seems to be rather simple. There are more grounds to assume a pattern of complicated impacts of a whole row of factors that resulted, finally, in Middle Palaeolithic variability which reconstructed at the date. Herewith, one of these factors is supposed to be like a keystone, and I inclined to regard the “paleoethnological” factor in this role.

03. Gladkykh, M. ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE BY THE PALAEOLITHIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOURCES, 29-34.

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The article analyzes the most ancient samples of inhabited structures of the man of last glacial of epoch. With their construction in some territories (particularly in Ukraine) were widely used mammoth bones. The good safety of the building remnants in a cultural layer of settlements allows us to look at the basic receptions of construction and external registration of ancient dwellings. The author pays attention on rhythm system and symmetry in stacking in walls of structures, which allows us to estimate aesthetic aspects of building activity of the ancient person and to ascertain the origin of architecture in the Paleolithic epoch alongside with other forms of art, such as cave painting and sculpture made from mammoth bones.

Considering dwellings of the ancient person as logic continuation of a structure of refuges of animals, the author pays attention to qualitative distinction of refuges of animals and dwellings of the man from the point of view of their social functions. The occurrence of architecture in opinion of the author reflects end of process of occurrence of human dwellings together with formation of the man of modem physical shape in process of anthroposociogenesis.

04. Ryndiuk, N., Skakun, N. THE NEW FINDS OF ANTHROPOMORPHIC FIGURINES IN BOLGRAD-ALDENI II, 35-40.

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Among the anthropomorphic figurines from Gumelnita settlements of the left bank of Lower Danube region, the collection from Nagomoye II is the most numerous and the most interesting. About 30 figurines came from this site and 24 of them were received during the excavations in 1983-1988. This collection consists of 7 fragments belonging without any doubt to the female statuettes, 5 fragments – with male signs, 4 fragments of the figurines upper parts, 2 arms, 4 legs and 2 unique figurines (the sample of hermaphrodite and the fragment of upper part of the big statuette).

All figurines from Nagomoye II were made of grey or sometimes browri clay with the grog or sand inclusions, the surface of most figurines is well processed or covered with the slip. All statuettes are in standing position. Three methods of the figurines modelling are traced (from single piece of clay; from two vertical parts; from some separate parts with using of auxiliary organic materials).

In general the anthropomorphic statuettes-complex from Nagomoye П demonstrates the considerable parallels with the finds from other Bolgrad-Aldeni II sites and have some differences from Stoicani-Aldeni figurines where there are more types of statuettes.

05. Pioro, V. THE NEW FINDS OF THE ANTHROPOMORPHOUS STELAE AND THE CROMLEHS FROM THE BARROWS OF THE PIT GRAVE CULTURE IN STEPPISH UKRAINE, 41-44.

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In the basin of the Bazavluk river on the right bank of the Dnieper during 1974-1979 years the archaeological expedition of the Kiev University investigated forty three barrows in which were found two stone cromlechs and five stelae of the Pit Grave culture. The cromlech in the barrow 29 consisted of the anthropomorphous stelae and pillars. The stele in the barrow 12 was found in the embankment. The rest were found in the stone floors over the graves. It is quite possible that these stelae originally were in the vertical position and took part in the funeral ceremonies. The stelae in the burials symbolized the dead. The presence of the stelae and cromlechs in the barrows is able to reflect the social status of the dead.

06. Malieiev, Yu., Konoplia, V. MULTI-LAYER SETTLEMENT BLYSCHANKA ON SERET RIVER, 45-58.

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The article devoted to one of the most interesting sites of High-Dniester region multi-layer settlement Blyschanka. On the settlement represented the materials of Trypolian culture, culture of spherical amphorae, Holigrad group of Thracian Halldstat and Old Rus times. In the article the materials of two periods: Trypolian and Halldstat, are presented in detail. In the article presented the description of ceramic pottery, the plastic arts and other finds.

07. Samoilenko, L. THE BARROW OF MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE NEAR THE VILLAGE ZATYSHNE OF THE LUHANSK REGION, 59-62.

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The archaeological expedition of the Kiev University investigated nine barrows of the Bronze Age near the Village Zatyshne of the Kreminski region of the Lugansk province in 1990-1992. One of these barrows (5) is distinguished with accurate stratification in the disposition of the graves. The grave 4 have been attributed as the middle period of the culture of the Multiraised Border Pottery. The fragments of the vessel of this culture were found near the burial. The graves 2,3 and 5 were dated by the early period of the Zrubna culture. The burial 3 was accomplished by the rite of the cremation. The graves 1 and 6 were dated by the late period of the Zrubna culture. Six different plastic pots and two bronze knifes were found in the burials of the Zrubna culture.

08. Antonenko, B. CLAY FIGURINES FROM CATACOMB BURIAL, 63-64.

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This article for the first time gives the full description and drawings of the statuettes from catacomb burial on Luganshchyna investigated by the Kiev University expedition in 1987. The earthenware statuettes have not been met in monuments of the catacomb-grave culture, therefore these findings are unique. It permits to widen our knowledge about ideology of the Bronze Age tribes on the South of Ukraine.

09. Zelenko, S. WORKS OF UNDERWATER-ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION OF TARAS SHEVCHENKO UNIVERSITY OF KYIV ON THE SOUTH CRIMEA COAST IN 1991-1995, 65-70.

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The article describes submarine researches in cape region Plaka and introduces into scientific turnover new archaeological material. Such researches have not taken place on South Crimea shore till now yet. One of the main objectives of expedition is the composition of archaeological map of submarine part of waterside line of South Crimea coast with mapping of locations of antiquities. The analysis of found archaeological material allows us to speak about existence of medieval settlement on western side of cape Plaka in period between VI – XV centuries and allows us to locate ancient city Lampad on east side of the cape known in written sources. The expedition also discovered two shipwreck places of VII and IX cent. A.D.

10. Sorokopud, S., Filipenko, A. ABOUT THE UNDERWATER-ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS IN SEBASTOPOL AREA IN 1993-1994, 71-74.

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Kiev Submarine Swimming Club (leader Stanislav Sorokopud) under the direction of collaborators of Chersonesus historical-archaeological park carried out inspection of a several bays on territory of contemporary Sebastopol. The results of these inspections are given in presented article.

11. Pioro, I. GOTHS IN MOUNTAIN CRIMEA, 75-80.

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The problem of the Crimean Goths is one of the most popular in the history of the Northern Black Sea coast. The works of many scientists of the 19th-20th centuries were devoted to its decision.

The history of the Crimean Goths is indissoluble connected with the ethnic processes which proceeded in Europe in the 1st millennium A.D. The ancient authors (Ammianus Marcellinus, Zosimus, Iordanes, Agathias Myrinaeus, Stephanus Byzantius, Johannes Zonaras and others) testified the advancement of various Germanic tribes to the South. The biritual burial-grounds of the Cherniakhovska culture (the 3d-mid. – 5th cent. A.D.) in northern Black Sea coast are the archaeological reflection of the multi-ethnical Gothic Union. Germanic cremations, Sarmatian and Alanian graves become localized in the burial-grounds together. Such cemeteries (the state farm “Sevastopolic” , the Black River, the Belbek I and others) were opened in the Crimea not far from Chersonesos. Besides that, the finds of the Cherniakhovska culture as the indication on the direction of the penetration of the population were found in the graves of Sarmatian and Alanian burial-grounds on the territory from the delta of the Danube to the Lower Don. This group of the monuments includes such burial-grounds as Inkerman, Mangush, Red Poppy, Mangup, Ternovka, Ozerne III, Druzhne, Perevalne, Neizats and others in the Southwestern Crimea. The cemeteries wits the Germanic cremations (Ai-Todor, Chatyrdag, Upper Oreanda, Parthenit) were opened on the south coast of the Crimea. Under influences of the Christianity the cremations completely disappeared in the second half of the 5th cent. The Alanian traditions have dominated on the burial-grounds in the Crimean Mountains and South coast during early Middle Ages. However, the typical Gothic ethnographical traits in the details of female costumes of the second half of the 6th- 7th centuries were discovered in the graves on many cemeteries (Suuk-Su, Arteck, Koreis, Simeiz, Luchiste, Skaliste, Chufut-Kale, Bashtanivka, Aromat, Eski-Kermen, Ternovka and others).

The record about the Gothic region Dori which was fortified with the “long walls” by the emperor Ustinian is contained in the work of Procopius Caesariensis. The remnants of the “Long walls” were found in gorge Karalez to the north from Mangup (Dory-Doros) which was the political center of the Gothic region. The settlement and the burial-ground of the period from the 6th to the 10th centuries which belonged to the Goths-Federates were opened near the “long walls “. The burial-grounds of the Goths-Federates were opened in the slopes of Mangup too.

The information about Germanic language of the Crimean Goths is contained in the works of the authors of the 13thl6th centuries (Rubruck, Barbara, Busbeck). So, the conception of the Crimean Goths is based on the facts of the various groups of the sources.

12. Komar, O. THE SARMATIANS OF ROS AREA AND “SOUTHERN” THEORY OF RUS’ ORIGIN, 81-88.

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The paper is devoted to the critical examination of the hypothesis about Sarmatian origin of the tribe Ros. Its existence in the Ros river area is the basic hypothesis of the so called south origin of Rus theory. The paper considers the group of Sarmatian burials in the Ros area (right bank of middle Dnieper region) which to authors thought is correlated with the Sarmatian tribe Roxolans. This fact seems to be an argument for the Sarmatian origin of Ros, but analysis of archeological data and written sources have led us to the contrary assertion. The Roxolans had appeared in the Ros river area at the beginning of the 1th century A.D. and migrated to the Lower Danube by the end of the century. The supposition that the part of Roxolans had stayed on this territory and was assimilated by Slavs cannot be pro ved by any facts.

Traditional correlation Ros with Rosomons of Jordanes and Hros of Pseudo-Zaharias Rhetor is based on the mistaken understanding of those names as ethnonyms. The linguistic analysis shows that rosomon is a Gothic word ros-man – horseman that was synonym to the word nomad, m a Gothic legend inserted in the text of Jordanes this word substituted name Alans. The Hros from the text of Pseudo-Zaharias Rhetor cannot be connected with Slavonic tribes either, because it is Syrian adaptation of the Greek heros. So neither archaeological data no written sources confirms the existence of the tribe Ros before the 9th century A.D.

13. Androschuk, F. TO THE DATING OF PETERSEN-51 SCANDINAVIAN BUCKLES, 89-94.

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The determination of chronology of Scandinavian antiquities in East Europe is important for the reconstruction of the stages and the character of Russian-Scandinavian relations. The article considers one of categories of these objects core-like or tortoise buckles. The co-occurrence of these buckles with other objects and coins in funeral complexes of Yaroslav Volga region, Ladoga region. Overhead and Middle Dnieper region produces an inference of their dating within the of first half of X century. The treats attention on accompaniment of buckles 51 with articles of Byzantine-Eastern origin, that allows to suppose the northmen penetration possibly in South and South-East of Eastern Europe. In general, the offered dating will comfort with chronology of these type of adornment established by I. Janson for Sweden materials.

14. Osadchyi, R., Filiuk, O. THE SETTLEMENT OF XI-XIII CENTURIES NEAR VILLAGE OF SOFIIVSKA BORSCHAHIVKA IN KYIV REGION, 95-98.

15. Liniova, Ye. THE PRECONDITIONS AND THE HISTORY OF ORIGIN OF UKRAINIAN ARCHAEOLOGY, 99-106.

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This brief sketch is the attempt to look at the history and preconditions of origin of Ukrainian archaeology as a science in general and in Kiev, in particular.

In the becoming a science the Archaeology have passed a complex, ambiguous way from accumulation of archaeological material and its publication, up to the understanding of importance of that source, and also interpretation and generalization of historical processes on the basis of archaeological materials on Ukraine in XIX – beginning of XX centuries.

The article draws the attention to the contribution of the teachers of Kiev university of St. Vladimir (today’s Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv) to development of archaeology in Ukraine.

16. Omelchenko, Yu. PRE-MUSEUM FORMS OF ACCUMULATION AND USE OF HISTORICAL-CULTURAL VALUES, 107-115.

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The article considers the historical process of formation of the first subsystem of museum studies (the subject of museum significance), pre-museum forms of accumulation and use of historical-cultural values as means of sozialization.