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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
List of scientific works of Mykhailo I. Gladkikh

Compiler Marharyta Chymyrys
Taras Shevchenko National University
ORCID: 0000-0002-4177-5246

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-23-30
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-23-30

Language: Ukranian

List of scientific works List of scientific works

Cite as:

Chymyrys, M. 2021. List of scientific works of Mykhailo I. Gladkikh. VITA ANTIUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 9-22.

VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
Lithic processing complex of the fourth dwelling of the Mezhyrich Upper Palaeolithic settlement

Tsvirkun Ostap¹, Pavlo Shydlovskyi², Dudnyk Diana³, Marharyta Chymyrys4

¹ National Museum of the History of Ukraine
ORCID: 0000-0002-3265-2471

²,4 Taras Shevchenko National University
ORCID: 0000-0001-6771-812X
ORCID: 0000-0002-4177-5246

³Institute for Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
4ORCID: 0000-0003-0855-3219

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-55-86
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-55-86

ABSTRACT
In order to determine the degree of relatedness of archaeological sites, it is important to study lithic assemblages originated from relatively closed archaeological objects and which can serve as a reference for a comparative analysis of several industries. This article analyses a separate archaeological object – a flint Workshop 1 – against the background of the overall structure of the lithic assemblage of the fourth household unit.

The Workshop 1 was discovered during the excavations of the fourth dwelling of the Mezhyrich epigravettian site in 2018-2020. The history of the study of this dwelling and lithic assemblage of the fourth unit, the conditions of detection and the context of the Workshop 1 location, the typological-statistical and technological features of the flint artifacts, obtained as a result of the latest excavations of the fourth dwelling filling, are given.

Analysis of the distribution of finds together with stratigraphic observations allow us to assert at least two living surfaces into the dwelling. Planigraphic features of the trench studied in dwelling demonstrate the functional specialization of different parts of the interior space. The study revealed two different areas on both sides of the central part with the remains of the hearth. Cultural remains in the south-western part testify to fur and leather processing operations here, while in the north-eastern part of the trench there is clear evidence of flint knapping operations and the manufacture of tools, which in turn related to leather processing.

Data on the spatial distribution of flint products in other dwellings of the Mezhyrich settlement reveal common features in the organization of living space. Such peculiarities of the behaviour of the prehistoric inhabitants require the search for more distant analogies on the mezhyrichian industry sites and among the Upper Palaeolithic population of Eastern Europe in general.

Keywords: Upper Palaeolithic, Epigravettian, household unit, workshop, lithic technology.

Language: Ukranian

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Cite as:

Tsvirkun, O., Shydlovskyi, Dudnyk, D., Chymyrys, M. 2021. Lithic processing complex
of the fourth dwelling of the Mezhyrich Upper Palaeolithic settlement. VITA ANTIUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 55-86.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
Scientific substantiation of Mezhyrich settlement transfer to T. Shevchenko National Reserve

Pavlo Shydlovskyi¹, Mykola Chornyi²

¹ Taras Shevchenko National University
ORCID: 0000-0002-4177-5246

² Taras Shevchenko National Reserve

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-157-168
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-157-168

ABSTRACT
The Mezhyrich settlement is a unique vestige of prehistoric archaeology, dating back from 18 to 13 ka BP. This site is of worldwide importance due to its archaeological, anthropological, cultural value and which is an important source for revealing the issues of nature and society relationships in prehistoric times. A striking feature of the Mezhyrich settlement is the discovery of the remains of mammoth bone dwelling structures and a good state of preservation of cultural layers with faunal remains, bone, tusk and lithic artifacts. Since the discovery of the site in 1965, archaeological excavations have uncovered the remains of four Palaeolithic dwellings and a number of pits, workshops and plots of cultural layers around them. In the settlement are the remains of a fourth mammoth bone dwelling, which was discovered and partially explored by Prof. Mykhailo I. Gladkikh from the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.

In order to preserve the settlement and avoid its further destruction, it is necessary to carry out a number of site protection measures. Namely: 1) to take legal and organizational measures to address the issue of establishing a museum on the site as a subdivision of the T. Shevchenko National Reserve; 2) museification of the remains of the fourth mammoth bone dwelling, as a central element of the ‘Archaeopark of prehistoric culture’; 3) continuation of archaeological and restoration works on the remains of dwelling. The final solution to the problem of preserving the remains of Palaeolithic housing should be the construction of a stationary museum building over the dwelling and surrounding cultural layers, which would have the necessary temperature and humidity and would meet the standards of museum building.

It will be problematic to preserve the Mezhyrich assemblage without further efforts in the direction of museifica­ tion. After all, the exposure of a mammoth bone dwelling in the open state requires a whole set of actions, which in­ volves the restoration of bone remains on site with a parallel archaeological study of the interior and the surrounding area. The T. Shevchenko National Reserve can realize the application of the whole complex of site protection measures and the museification of the Mezhyrich assemblage through the including of this outstanding archeological monu­ ment to its territory.

Keywords: archeological monument of national value, Upper Palaeolithic, museification, reserve, site protection studies

Language: English

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Cite as:

Shydlovskyi, P., Chornyi, M. 2021. Scientific substantiation of Mezhyrich settlement transfer to T. Shevchenko National Reserve. VITA ANTIUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 157-168.

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Gladkikh, M.I. 1999. Drevnejshaya arhitektura po arheologicheskim istochnikam epohi paleolita. VITA ANTIQUA, 1, s. 29-33. http://vitaantiqua.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/004VA01-gladkikh.pdf

Gladkikh, M.I., Kornietz, N.L. 1977. Issledovanie v Mezhiriche. Arheologicheskie otkrytiya 1976 goda, s. 281-282.

Gladkikh, M.I., Kornietz, N.L. 1979. Nova sporuda z kistok mamonta v Mezhyrichchi. Visnyk AN URSR, 9, s. 50-54.

Gladkikh, M.I., Stanko, V.N. 1997. Epokha piznoho paleolitu. In: Tolochko, P.P. (ed.). Davnia istoriia Ukrainy. T. 1.: Pervisne suspilstvo, r. II. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, s. 51-113.

Pidoplichko, I.G. 1969. Pozdnepaleoliticheskie zhilishcha iz kostej mamonta na Ukraine. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.

Pidoplichko, I.G. 1976. Mezhirichskie zhilishcha iz kostej mamonta. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.

Samoilenko, L.H., Shydlovskyi, P.S. 2016. Mezhyritska stoianka: yake maibutnie v nashoho mynuloho? (Mezhyrich settlement: What will be the future of our past?). Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, History, 4(131), s. 62–69. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1206223

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Chornyi, M.H, Chorna, L.O., Hryshchenko, V.M., Shevchyk, V.L. et al. 2012. Chornyi, M.H. (ed.). Zapovidna Cherkashchyna: istoriia, sohodennia, maibutnie: naukovo-dovidkove vydannia. Cherkasy: Brama-Ukraina, 200 s.

Chornyi, M.H., Chorna, L.O. 2013. Kanivskyi pryrodnyi zapovidnyk: peredumovy stvorennia, retrospektyvnyi analiz diialnosti, suchasnyi stan ta perspektyvy rozvytku: monohrafiia. Kyiv: VPTs «Kyivskyi universytet», 384 s.

Shydlovskyi, P. 2013. Doslidzhennia ta problemy zberezhennia Mezhyritskoho poselennia myslyvtsiv na mamontiv. Pratsi NDI pamiatkookhoronnykh doslidzhen, vyp. 8, s. 567–581. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1188708

Shydlovskyi, P., Péan, S., Demay, L., Crepin, L., Tsvirkun, O., Chymyrys, M., Mamchur, B. 2020. Ponovlennia doslidzhen chetvertoho Mezhyritskoho zhytla. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia v Ukraini, 2018, s. 244–247. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3751600

Shydlovskyi, P., Synytsia, Ye., Tarakhan-Bereza, Z. 2018. Arkheolohichne mynule Kanivshchyny. In: Tarakhan-Bereza, Z. Sviatynia: Chernecha hora ta starodavnii monastyr Kanivskyi. Cherkasy: IntroligaTOR, s. 7-16. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1432771

Shydlovskyi, P., Péan, S., Crepin, L., Tsvirkun, O. 2018. Investigating a Prehistoric mammoth bone dwelling: from field and lab research to education. Quaternary Perspectives, 25(2), p. 18–19. doi:10.5281/zenodo.2631382

Shydlovskyi, P.S., Tsvirkun, O.I., Péan, S., Chymyrys, M.V., Mamchur, B.V. 2019. New Study of Fourth Dwelling from Mezhyrich Upper Palaeolithic Campsite: the results of International Summer School activity. VITA ANTIQUA 11. Archaeology, Museum & Monument Studies: educational and research aspects, s. 92-115. doi:10.37098/VA-2019-11-92-115

VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
New data on flint processing of East Trypillia tribes of the Bug-Dnieper interfluve

Yevhen Pichkur
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: 0000-0002-5087-5548

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-113-128
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-113-128

ABSTRACT
For the first time, materials of such settlements of the East Trypillia culture as Trostyanchyk, Onopriyivka І are published. Despite approximately the same quantitative ratio, even at first glance, the materials of these two leaflets differ significantly from each other. The Trostyanchyk complex is actually blade-type: blades prevail both among production waste and among the tool kit. Flakes and tools on them dominate in Onopriyivka. If the Trostyanchyk complex can be regarded as “classic” in terms of the tool kit: retouched blades, end-scrapers, sickle inserts, perforators on blades, etc., then the Onopriyivka complex looks more primitive: retouched flakes, notched tools and scrapers on flakes, and others. In Onopriyivka, unlike Trostyanchyk, finds of weapons are completely absent. Products from Onopriyivka are made mainly of local raw materials, while in Trostyanchyk there are approximately equal parts of products from local and imported raw materials, and products from local flint are made as carefully as products from Volyn flint. At the same time, in both cases we can confidently speak of the local nature of production. This is evidenced by both the use of local flint raw material and the specific items present in both collections. In Trostyanchyk, as already mentioned, a hammerstone was found, in Onopriyivka — core-like fragments and chips of modify of  cores.

Such differences can be explained by both territorial and chronological discrepancies. Onopriyivka I is earlier, refers to the end of stage ВІ, Trostyanchyk — to the end of stage ВІІ. Trostyanchyk is located on the Southern Bug, Onopriyivka — in the Bugo-Dnieper interfluve. Although, perhaps, this situation is explained by the unevenness of the study of these sites.

In addition, materials from the Vladyslavchyk settlement are published for the first time.

Based on their analysis, using analogies from related and synchronous sites, the author tried to identify the features of the East Trypillia lithic industry in the Bug-Dnieper rivers interfluve. As it turned out, at the modern level, the identification of such features is not possible. The materials of the East Trypillia culture of the region are, on the whole, more similar to the materials of the settlements of the West Trypillia culture, than to related sites on the Southern Bug.

Keywords: East Trypillia culture, Kukuten`-Trypillya, production, flint processing, Bug-Dnieper interfluve.

Language: Ukranian

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Cite as:
Pichkur, Ye. 2021. New data on flint processing of East Trypillia tribes of the Bug-Dnieper interfluve. VITA ANTIQUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 113-128.

References:

Burdo, N.B. 2021. Skhidnotrypil`s`ka i zakhidnotrypil`s`ka kul`tury: mif chy real`nist`? Arkheolohiya i davnya istoriya Ukrayiny, 2 (39), s. 350-359.

Burdo, N.B., Videyko, M.Yu. 1997. Rozkopky trypil`s`koho poselennya Ihnatenkova Hora bilya s. Hryhorivka na Dnipri. Arkheolohichni vidkryttya v Ukrayini 1993 roku, s. 23-26.

Videyko, M.Yu. 2005. Trypil`s`ke poselennya Ihnatenkova Hora bilya s. Hryhorivka. Kam’yana doba Ukrayiny, Vyp. 7, s. 186-200.

Ovchynnykov, E.V. 2012. Doslidzhennia na trypilskomu poselenni Vladyslavchyk. In: Otroshchenko, V.V. (ed.). Zemledeltsy i skotovody drevnei Evropy. Kiev; Sankt-Peterburg, s. 115-123.

Ovchynnykov, E.V. 2014. Trypilska kultura Kanivskoho Podniprov’ia. Kyiv: Vydavets` Oleh Filiuk.

Ovchynnykov, E.V., Lezhukh, I.P. 2005. Zvit pro doslidzhennya na trypil`s`komu poselenni Vladyslavchyk 2005 roku. NA IA NANU, f.64, № 2005/281.

Ovchynnykov, E.V., Pichkur, Ye.V. 2003. Doslidzhennya na trypil`s`komu poselenni Pekari II. Arkheolohichni vidkryttya v Ukrayini 2001-2002 rr., s. 207-212.

Ovchynnykov, E.V., Shydlovskyi, P.S., Shostyk, O.I., Pichkur, Yе.V. 2005. Doslidzhennya trypil`s`kykh pam’yatok na Kanivshchyni. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennya v Ukrayini 2003-2004 rr., s. 32-42.

Petrun’, V. F. 2004. Vykorystannia mineralnoi syrovyny naselenniam trypilskoi kultury. In: Videiko, M.Yu. (ed.). Entsyklopediia trypilskoi tsyvilizatsii. Kyiv: Ukrpolihrafmedia, 1, s. 199-218.

Pichkur, Ye.V. 2005. Opys vyrobiv z kremenyu, znaydenykh na trypil`s`komu poselenni Vladyslavchyk. V: Ovchynnykov, E.V., Lezhukh, I.P. 2005. Zvit pro doslidzhennya na trypil`s`komu poselenni Vladyslavchyk 2005 roku. NA IA NANU, f.64, № 2005/281, Dod. 3, s. 41-42.

Pichkur, Ye.V. 2017. Indikatory «importov» v tripolskoy kulture (po materialam «kladov» kremnevykh plastin). Vita Antiqua, 9, s. 206-222. doi:10.37098/VA-2017-9-206-221

Pichkur, Ye.V. 2019. Skladovi kremenevoyi industriyi kukuten`-trypil`s`koyi spil`noty: vydobutok ta poshyrennya kremenyu. Arkheolohiya i davnya istoriya Ukrayiny, 3 (32), s. 37-49. doi:10.37445/adiu.2019.03.03

Pichkur, Ye.V. 2019a. Porivnyal`nyy analiz kremenevykh kompleksiv trypil`s`kykh poselen` Volodymyrivka ta Andriyivka. V: Terpylovs`kyy R.V. (hol. red.). Tezy dopovidey mizhnarodnoyi naukovoyi konferentsiyi «ARKHEOLOHIYA TA MUZEYNA SPRAVA V SYSTEMI OSVITY I NAUKY z nahody 75-richchya zasnuvannya kafedry arkheolohiyi ta muzeyeznavstva», 24-25 zhovtnya 2019, Kyiv, Ukrayina. K., b/v.

Pichkur, Ye.V., Shydlovskyi, P.S. 2003. Kompleks kremeneobrobky na poselenni Pekari II. In: Korvin-iotrovskyi, O.H., Kruts, V.O., Ryzhov, S.M. (eds.). Trypilski poselennia-hihanty (Materialy mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii). Kyiv: Korvin-Press, s. 121-129.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
To the 80th anniversary of Mykhailo Gladkikh

Marharyta Chymyrys¹, Pavlo Shydlovskyi², Serhiy Ryzhov³
¹,²,³ Taras Shevchenko National University
¹ORCID: 0000-0002-4177-5246
²ORCID: 0000-0001-6771-812X
³ORCID: 0000-0002-3229-1020

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-9-22
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-9-22

ABSTRACT
The current issue of VITA ANTIQUA is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Professor of the Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Taras
Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Doctor of History, well known in Ukraine and abroad specialist in prehistoric archaeology Mykhailo Ivanovych Gladkikh.

The topics of the collection covers the periods from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Chalcolithic of Eastern Europe. The articles consider the problems of paleoecology and cultural adaptation of hunter-gatherers and early farmers to different natural and climatic conditions during the Upper Pleistocene – Early Holocene. The issues of the appearance of the first residential constructions are raised, the peculiarities of the development of the material culture of prehistoric societies on the territory of Ukraine are considered.

Language: Ukranian/English

To the 80th To the 80th

Cite as:

Chymyrys, M., Shydlovskyi, P., Ryzhov, S. 2021. To the 80th anniversary of Mykhailo Gladkikh (instead of a foreword). VITA ANTIUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 9-22.

VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
Early mesolitic habitation in the Shpan-Koba Grotto (Crimea, Ukraine)

Oleksander Yanevich
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: 0000-0002-8088-6950

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-87-112
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-87-112

ABSTRACT
Shpan-Koba Grotto is currently the only stratified Mesolithic and Neolithic site on the plateau of the First Range of the Crimean Mountains (Yayla). Lower Early Mesolithic cultural layers of the site (archaeological unit 3) have exceptional preservation due to the rapid accumulation of sediment and infrequent settlement of the grotto. Their planigraphy, number and composition of the artifacts can tell about the peculiarities of the economical use of the landscapes and rock shelter of the Crimean highlands at that time.

Cultural layers of archaeological unit 3 date back to time from 11500 to 7600 years cal BP, which belongs to Early Preborial. At this time, the climate was colder and wetter than today, the plateau of the Yayla around Shpan-Koba was covered by mesofit steppes, pine, birch and juniper grew on the slopes of the mountains. According to archaeozoological data, the fauna of the Yayla included such representatives of steppe landscapes as saiga and horse, and simultaneously typical forest animals — red deer, brown bear and lynx.

All cultural layers of the unit 3 are very similar. They belong to the type of «ephemeral»: are represented by small fires, few bones of hunted animals and single flint artifacts. The layers were left by the bearers of the Swiderian culture, due to very few flint artifacts, among them: swidrian points, segment, backed blades, straight dihedral burin, endscrapers. More than half of the found flint artifacts are retouched tools, the rest — blades and flakes, have the traces of use in the form of macro retouch. Such composition of the flint inventory indicates on the hunters (“expeditional”)
character of the habitations in the Shpan-Koba grotto.

The planigraphy of all layers of the unit 3 was similar too. It corresponds to classic ethnographical «Drop-Toss model» be L. Binford, which describe the organization of the living space around the hearth by a group of people from one to five people (Binford 1978; 1983). The central object in each of the cultural layers was one hearth about one meter in diameter with the thin charcoal lens and little piece of burned clay under it. Three concentric zones were traced around the hearths on the western, southern, and southeastern sides: 1) without artifacts; 2) with little bones and flint artifacts (Drop zone); 3) with bigger bones (Toss zone). The «asymmetrical» location of the finds in relation to the hearths indicates the absence of artificial housing in the grotto. The only exception is the habitation of the 3-5/6 cultural layer, in which a small wall of stones was excavated. For it, the «symmetrical» location of the finds around the hearths can be assumed to be an artificial structure made of plant materials, such as a brush windbreak or a hut. The windbreak could also exist in the habitation of layer 3-2, judging by the lack of a Toss zone in the south-western part.

The presence of only one hearth in each of the cultural layers, the location of the artifacts relative to the hearth and their number, the composition of hunting prey, etc., evidence, that Shpan-Koba grotto in the Early Mesolithic was used as dwelling of little group (4—5 people). The occupation, probably, was very short terming, due to small and lowpower fires, very few bones of animals and single flint artifacts, which were found in сertain layers. Their purpose was recreation, skinning and butchering of hunting prey, repair of hunting equipment and more.

Seasonality of the Early Mesolithic dwellings in the grotto, due to archaeozoological data, fall on warm time — spring and summer (Benecke 1999, s 83, abb. 10). The aim of the swidrian people’s hunting expeditions to Yaila was hunting, first, on the saiga and red deer, which migrated from from the steppes of northern Crimea. The number of the red deer also increased in the First Range of the Crimean Mountains during warm seasons. The bones of the brown bear in many layers suggest that it was also an attractive prey.

Keywords: Crimea, Ukraine, Early Mesolithic, habitation, seasonal migrations, Swiderian.

Language: Ukranian

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Cite as:

Yanevich, O. Early mesolitic habilitation in the Snap_koba Grotto (Crimea, Ukraine). VITA ANTIQUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 87-111.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments
Unusual faunistic collection from the scientific funds of the National Kyiv-Pechersk Reserve

Laëtitia Demay¹, Sergiy Taranenko², Anna Yanenko³, Dmytro Stupak4
¹Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (France)
ORCID: 0000-0003-4930-7030

²National Preserve «Kyiv-Pechеrsk lavra»
ORCID: 0000-0003-0590-9726

³National Preserve «Kyiv-Pechеrsk lavra»
ORCID: 0000-0003-0713-3087

4The Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: 0000-0002-0809-2179

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-139-156
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-139-156

ABSTRACT
Animal bones were discovered in Scientific founds in National Kyiv Pechersk Reserve. There are 17 pieces. We present here their identification and the description of taphonomic observations. These bones belong to Mammuthus primigenius, Ursus sp. and Cervus sp. They come from various sites from Ukraine. Probably, this collection was formed in the National Kyiv-Pechersk Reserve as a result of the return of materials from Ukrainian museums after the Second World War.

Keywords: National Kyiv-Pechersk Reserve, Illinka Cave, Kyrylivska site, returned collections

Language: English

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Cite as:
Demay, L., Taranenko, S., Yanenko, A., Stupak, D. 2021. Unusual faunistic collection from the scientific funds of the National Kyiv-Pechersk Reserve. VITA ANTIQUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 139-156.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
Environmental factors in the development of primitive society in the prehistory

Mykhaylo Gladkikh¹, Serhiy Ryzhov²
¹,² Taras Shevchenko National University
² ORCID: 0000-0002-3229-1020

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-31-42
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-31-42

ABSTRACT
The paper considers the problem of interaction between nature and primitive society in early prehistory in terms of an adaptive model. In Ukrainian historical science there was not enough attention to studying the problems of cultural adaptation to the environment.
The authors offer the model of development of the behavior of hunters gathered on the example of neighboring geographic regions, which were under pressure from various natural and climatic conditions: Central Europe during the last interglacial and territory of modern Ukraine during the last glacial.
During the last interglacial of the Pleistocene in the Palaeolithic sites of Central Europe the characteristic features of cultural adaptation of Homo Sapiens are traced. First of all, they are found in the choice of place of residence, in the specialization of animal hunting, in the use of raw materials and in separate manifestations of material and spiritual culture.
On the Upper Palaeolithic sites of the territory of Ukraine during the last glacial the composition of faunal remains reflects not so much the environment as the direction of its economic activity. The richness of the fauna, on the one hand, opened opportunities for progress in the extensive development of the economy, and on the other - specialized hunting contributed to a fuller exploitation of the surrounding area, the use of ancient ecological niches.
The nature of the interaction of economic and cultural type and historical and ethnographic community determines the specific features of the material culture of Paleolithic society.
The following actual materials are indicated on the flexibility of hominins in various natural and geographical conditions of Central and Eastern Europe, which eventually provided in the historical prospect of the widespread settlement of humanity throughout the world.

Keywords: cultural adaptation, primitive society, environmental, hunter-gatherers, glacial, interglacial.

Language: Ukranian

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Cite as:

Gladkikh, M., Ryzhov, S. 2021. Environmental factors in the development of primitive society in the prehistory. VITA ANTIQUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 31-42.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
The earliest evidence for dwelling construction in the Upper Palaeolithic of the Eastern Europe: a 30,000-year-old surface structure from Mira layer I

Vadym Stepanchuk
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: 0000-0002-5476-2284

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-43-54
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-43-54

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this article is to present data on the surface structure identified in the upper layer of the Mira site in the Dnieper valley. The occupation of layer I, based on a set of consistent data, constitutes the re- mains of a seasonal winter camp of Pleistocene horse hunters. Ten available radiocarbon dates place the calibrated age of layer I between 31,000 to 28,000 cal BP. The rapid albeit gentle overlapping of the settlement remains with alluvial sediments ensured that the original settlement and dwelling patterns and their elements survived well. Thanks to this, it is possible to reconstruct some significant aspects of the construction process, as well as details of the arrangement of the dwelling’s interior space. A 30,000-year-old, permanent skeleton cylindrical yaranga type surface construction from Mira layer I is currently representing the oldest dwelling known in the Upper Palaeolithic of Ukraine and a broader context of the steppe zone of the East European plain.

Keywords: Upper Palaeolithic, surface dwelling, Eastern Europe.

Language: English

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Cite as:
Stepanchyk, V. 2021. The earliest evidence for dwelling construction in the Upper Palaeolithic of the Eastern Europe: a 30,000-year-old surface structure from Mira layer I. VITA ANTIQUA, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 43-53.

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VITA ANTIQUA,                                                                        ISSN 2522-9419 (Online), 2519-4542 (Print)
Center for Paleoethnological research

VITA ANTIQUA 13, 2021. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments.
The results of investigations at the tripole settlement of Hordashivka II in Cherkassy region

Valentyna Shumova
National University “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”
ORCID: 0000-0003-0176-7468

DOI:10.37098/VA-2021-13-129-138
https://www.doi.org/10.37098/VA-2021-13-129-138

ABSTRACT
Rescue archaeological excavations at the Tripolye settlement of Hordasivka II (Zvenigorodka district, Cherkassy region) were started in 1996. This settlement is located at western bank of Gornyj Tikich river, in 2.5 km to the west from the south-eastern edge of the village. It is placed on a part of plateau formed by the creek valley from the north and long cavin from the east. Visual observations indicate elliptic structure composed of a single row of dwellings. Settlement size did not exceed 3 ha.

The rectangular-shaped Dwelling 1 excavated in Hordashivka (12.5 x 5.0 m) was oriented from north-west to south-east. It is reconstructed as a house with the lower storey’s floor covered by clay and massive ceiling of the lower storey (= floor of the upper storey). Most of the interior details were found on the floor of the lower storey. These are the fireplace, working space, elevations.

Collection of finds is mostly represented by pottery (70% of the assemblage is referred to kitchen pottery and 30% of the assemblage is referred to table pottery). Part of the table pottery is decorated in black monochromic painting. Analysis of ceramics allows dating the settlement to Tripolye C II. Considering the relative and absolute chronology (radiocarbon dates obtained for Sharin III), this site may be dated to c. 3400 – 3200 BC. Materials from Hordashivka are “genetically” linked to post-Kosenovskaya group populations in the Southern Bug and Dnieper interfluve. This is traced by the specifics of the technology of vessels production and their decoration. It is important to admit ceramic influences from Sofievskaya group populations in the Middle Dnieper region. Settlements which are chronologically similar to Hordashivka II in the Southern Bug and Dnieper interfluve are not numerous. Later sites in this area are not known, while Tripolye traditions continued in other regions.

Keywords: Hordasivka-II, Late Tripolye (C II), settlements, houses, reconstruction, ceramics, chronology.

Language: Ukranian

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Cite as:

Shumova, V. 2021. The results of investigations at the tripole settlement of Hordashivka II in Cherkassy region. Vita Antiqua, 13. Dwellings of Prehistoric Europe: social adaptations in variable environments, pp. 129-137.

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