VITA ANTIQUA ISSN: 2522-9419 (Online), ISSN: 2519-4542 (Print)
VITA ANTIQUA 9, 2017, HUMAN & LANDSCAPE: Prehistoric Archaeology of Eastern Europe, 38-43
Geographical Approach in Prehistoric Archaeology at the turn of the 20th – 21st Centuries
¹- Department of Archaeology and Ethnology of Ukraine, Faculty of History of Odesa National I.I. Mechnikov University, Odesa
Attention to spatial and geographic frameworks of paleohistorical reconstructions became one of the most significant trends of European science at the last third of the 20th century. This time is marked by the origin of series of archaeological branches, and the most widespread among which are landscape archaeology, geoarchaeology, and environmental archaeology. In frames of each of them developing the unique set of concept, research methods and theoretical backgrounds for interpretation of human-environment relationships basing on the archaeological excavations data. Most broadly shared at that time are adaptation theory and connected with it concept of environmental stress and natural and ecological challenges theory. Accumulated fundamental empirical database and series of successful case studies allowed revision of methodological base for the conceptualization of nature and society interaction. Recent emphasis in this context is connected with the application of theories of sustainable development and environmental resilience, as well as niche construction theory. Moreover, during the past years, can be observed an actualization of concepts connected with the conceptualization of spatial frames of nature and society interaction and modelling of feedforwards and feedbacks in the ‘nature – ancient population’ system on the level of Anthropocene – geographic zone – landscape – microregion – niche – particular settlement.
Key words: Prehistoric Archaeology, Eastern Europe, Geographical approach